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SCI 8 Unit 1

Faults and Earthquakes

TermDefinition
Faults breaks in Earth’s lithosphere along which rocks slide past each other
Stress the force exerted when an object presses on, pulls on, or pushes against another object; causes rocks to bend
Earthquakes the shaking of the ground caused by sudden movements of large blocks of rock
Normal Faults when the block of rock above the fault plane slides down relative to the other block
Reverse Faults when the block of rock above the fault plane moves up relative to the other block
Strike-Slip Faults when the blocks move sideways on either side of the fault plane
Energy the ability to cause change
Waves carry energy from place to place, but not matter
Focus the point where rocks first begin to move and is the source of seismic waves
Epicenter the point directly above the focus of the earthquake on the surface of Earth
Primary Waves are the fastest waves and are the first to reach a location ; expand and compress the ground as they travel.
Secondary Waves the second wave to arrive at any location, and travel slower than P Waves, vibrate side-to-side/up and down
Surface Waves waves reach the surface and do not travel through Earth’s interior; have a rolling motion
Seismograph an instrument that constantly records ground movements.
Aftershock a smaller earthquake that follows a more powerful earthquake in the same area
Liquefaction the shaking of ground causes loose wet soil to act like a liquid
Tsunami water wave caused by an earthquake, volcanic eruption, or landslide.
Tension Stress that pulls rocks apart.
Compression Stress that pushes rocks together
Shearing Stress that pushes blocks horizontally
Created by: krussoscience