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B1(Cell Level Systems) B2(Scaling Up) B3(Organism Level Systems)

Nucleus Contains DNA in the form of Chromosomes that control the cells activity
Cytoplasm Gel like substance where most of the chemical reactions happen
Mitochondria These are the site of cellular respiration and contains the enzymes needed for the reactions involved
Cell Membrane (Plant and Animal Cell) Holds the cell together and controls what goes in and out by providing a selective barrier. They also contain receptor molecules that are used for cell communication
Rigid Cell Wall Made of cellulose gives support for the cell
Chloroplasts Where photosynthesis occurs. Also contains a green substance called chlorophyll
Chromosomal DNA (One long circular chromosome) controls the cell's activities and replication. It floats free in the cytoplasm
Plasmids Small loops of extra DNA that aren't part of the chromosome. Plasmids contain genes for things like drug resistance, and can be passed between bacteria
Cell Membrane (Bacteria cell) Controls what goes in and out. The cell is also supported by a wall
Eukaryotes All Animals and Plants
Prokaryotes All Bacteria
What do both Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes contain? Contain sub-cellular substructures- part of the cells that each have a specific function
What does a Plant Cell contain? Nucleus, Cytoplasm, Mitochondria, Cell Membrane, Rigid Cell Wall, and Chloroplasts
What does Animal Cell contain? Nucleus, Cytoplasm, Mitochondria, Cell Membrane
Magnification = Image Size Real Size
Total Magnification Eyepiece Lens Magnification X Objective Lens Magnification
What is DNA? Double Helix of Paired Bases, Polymer made up of Nucleotides
What are the Base Pairs for DNA? AT & CG
What do Nucleotides contain? Sugar, Phosphate and Base
What are Polymers? Large complex molecules composed
What are Monomers? Small Basic Units
Enzymes are very.... Specific
Enzymes control... Cell reactions
What does a Catalyst do? Speeds up reactions without being used up itself
Each Enzyme is a... Protein coded for by a different gene, and has a unique shape which it needs to do it's job
Enzymes like the right.... pH, Temperature, and Concentration
What does the Enzyme Amylase breakdown? Starch to Maltose
What is Respiration? Process of transferring energy from the breakdown of glucose
What does ATP store? Energy needed for many cell processes
Respiration is controlled by what? Enzymes so the rate of respiration is affected by both temperature and pH
Respiration is a what type of reaction? Exothermic transfers energy to the environment (by heat)
Aerobic Respiration..... Needs plenty of Oxygen
Aerobic Respiration produces how much ATP? 32
What is the word equation for Aerobic Respiration? Glucose + Oxygen -----> Carbon Dioxide + Water
What is the symbol equation for Aerobic Respiration? C H O + 6O -------> 6O + 6H O 6 12 6 2 2 2
Anaerobic Respiration..... Doesn't use Oxygen at all
How much ATP does Anaerobic Respiration produces? 2
What is the word equation for Photosynthesis? light carbon dioxide + water -------------> glucose + oxygen chlorophyll
What is the symbol equation for Photosynthesis? 6CO + 6H O --------> C H O + 6O 2 2 6 12 6 2
What is the word equation for Anaerobic Respiration? Glucose ------> Lactic Acid
What is the word equation for Anaerobic Respiration in Fungi? Glucose ------> Ethanol + Carbon Dioxide
Evaluate Aerobic Respiration Aerobic: Plenty of Oxygen Substrate: Glucose Products: Carbon Dioxide + Water Energy: 32 ATP
Evaluate Anaerobic Respiration Anaerobic: Insufficient oxygen Substrate: Glucose Products: Animals- Lactic Acid, Plants- Ethanol and Carbon Dioxide Energy: 2 ATP
Biological Molecules can be... Broken down to Fuel Respiration
Carbohydrates are... Made up of Simple Sugars
Proteins are made... Of Amino Acids
Lipids are.... Of Fatty Acids & Glycerol
Plants are able to.. Make their own food by Photosynthesis
Oxygen Production shows.. Rate of Photosynthesis
Not enough Light... Slows down the rate of Photosynthesis
Too Little Carbon Dioxide... Also slows down Photosynthesis
Temperature has to... Be just right
New Cells are needed... For growth and repair
First the cell physically.... Grows and replicates it's contents
Then splits in.... 2 Via Mitosis
Most cells are,,, Specialised for a specific job
Differentiation The process of a cell changes to become specialised for it's job
For most animal cells differentiation is.... Lost at an early stage
Having specialised cells are important... It allows organisms to work more efficiently
Palisade leaf cells... Do most of the photosynthesis, they are pact with chloroplasts, lots of surface area
Created by: Shahed-02
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