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psy307evol ch.10p297

evol. psy. 307 ch 10 p. 297-302

humans and chimpanzees share male-initiated raiding parties with lethal results with no other known species
aggression is a means of coopting the resources of others
sex difference in physical aggression emerges as early as 3 years old
aggression can be used to defend against attack by cultivating a reputation that deters would be aggressors and prevents loss of status and resources
men and women both derogate same-sex rivals, impugning their status and reputation and make them less desirable to members of the opposite sex
because evolution operates according to differences in designs a cost inflicted on a rival can translate into a benefit for the perpetrator
aggression may function to increase status or power within existing social hierarchies depending on cultural norms
cultivating a reputation as aggressive might function to deter aggression and other forms of cost infliction from others
aggression and threat function to deter long-term mates from sexual infidelity
male sexual jealousy is the leading cause or perpetuating context of spousal battering
aggression is not a unitary, monolithic, or context-blind strategy
men who are lower in relative mate value than their wives or who experience a decrement in the resources women value are more likely to use aggression to solve the adaptive problem of a partner's potential infidelity
lethal retribution is a universal recourse for those subject to abuse
aggression may cause escalating circle of aggression and counter aggression
among cultures of honor failure to aggress when insulted (not killing dishonored daughter) can lead to loss of status
bullies select victims who cannot or will not retaliate
wives with a high density of family members may experience lower levels of domestic violence
evolutionary mechanisms are designed to be sensitive to context
men on men homicide predominates because males are constrained in their reproduction by their ability to gain access to high-investing females
sex difference in minimum obligatory parental investment means that males can produce more offspring than females
differences in reproduction between sexes means differences between the haves and have-nots are greater for males than females
greater variance in reproduction favors riskier strategies for males
sexually dimorphic show higher variance in the reproduction of one sex
within primate species the more intense the effective polygyny the more dimorphic the sexes are in size and form
humans are mildly dimorphic in weight roughly 18% heavier than
polygyny selects for risky strategies
risky strategies include violent combat with rivals and increased risk taking to get resources to mate
aggression in competitive contexts marked by polygyny aggression for multiple mates or to avoid total reproductive failure
men products of a long history of mild, but effective polygyny characterized by risky strategies of intrasexual competition for female access, filtering those who fail to take risks
victims of female aggression are typically members of their own sex
recalibration theory of anger feeling and expressing anger functions to increase the value that the target of your anger places on you welfare
those with a superior ability to inflict costs and confer benefits should be more prone to anger
men and women who are physically formidable and attractive respectively have greater success in resolving social conflicts in their favor and have greater sense of entitlement
selection may operate against women who take the large physical risks entailed by aggression
women need to place higher value on their own lives because infants depend on maternal more than paternal care
Created by: james22222222