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Apologia Human Body

Module 15

Which structure contains stratified transitional epithelium? urinary bladder
Between the medulla and the cortex, which has the larger concentration of solutes in the interstitial fluid? medulla
The ___________________ __________________ and the ___________________ _________________ of the loop of Henle are always permeable to water. proximal tubule, descending limbs
The ____________________ ____________________ of the loop of the Henle is never permeable to water. ascending limb
The ________________ _________________ and __________________ _____________ are permeable to water based on the amount of ADH present. distal tubule, collecting duct
In glomerular filtration, ____________ makes it through the filter. filtrete
In glomerular filtration, ____________________ does not make it through the filter. blood cells and proteins
A high permeability of the glomerular capillaries and the high glomerular capillary pressure causes a high ________. GFR
Glomerular capillary pressure is high because the _________________ ________________ is thinner than the ________________ ________________. efferent arteriole, afferent arteriole
____________ is fought by capsular pressure and colloid osmotic pressure. GCP
7 mmHg The difference between GCP and the sum of capsular pressure and colloid osmotic pressure
If the GCP loses 7 mmHg of pressure, no more glomerular filtration occurs, which leads to _____________________________. renal shutdown
To be actively reabsorbed, a substance usually needs __________________________________. a carrier and ATP
Proteins are an exception in being actively reabsorbed, as they only need ATP because proteins are absorbed by ________________________. pinocytosis
The main substance that is actively reabsorbed. water
If the reabsorption of something is high, it means that a lot of it is actively reabsorbed and will go into the ___________ and only a little of it will be found in the _____________. blood, urine
If a substance is secreted by the nephron, it is going back into the urine. Thus, the concentration _________________ in the blood. decreases
In the proximal tubule, the filtrate has just entered the nephron. Thus, it has about ______________________ concentration of solutes as does blood plasma. the same
As the filtrate descends into the medulla, water leaves the nephron, concentrating the filtrate. Thus, the filtrate has a _________________ concentration of solutes in the lower portion of the descending limb of the loop of the Henle. higher
As the filtrate descends into the medulla, water leaves the nephron, concentrating the filtrate. Thus, the filtrate has a _______________________________ of solutes at the bottom of the loop of Henle. higher concentration
As the filtrate rises up the ascending limb of the loop of Henle, solutes are actively transported out of the filtrate, but water is not allowed to follow. Thus, the concentration of solutes in the filtrate is _____________ than that of plasma. lower
At the distal tubule, the active transport of solute out of the nephron has been going on for quite a while. Thus, there is a _______________________________ of solutes in the filtrate than in the blood plasma. lower concentration
The internal urinary sphincter is controlled ________________. automatically
As we develop, we learn to control the ____________________ urinary sphincter. external
The ______________________________________ detect and respond to changes in blood pressure and sodium level in the blood. juxtaglomerular cells
The hormone stimulated by the secretions of the juxtaglomerular cells. aldosterone
______________________ reduces blood pressure and the sodium level in the blood, and is secreted in the heart atria in response to atrial stretching. atrial natriuretic hormone
___________________ is when blood pH drops below 7.35 acidosis
___________________ is when blood pH rises above 7.45. alkalosis
When a base enters a buffer, the acid in the buffer will react with it. Thus, in the bicarbonate buffer, ______________________ will react. carbonic acid
When a base enters a buffer, the acid in the buffer will react with it. Thus, in the phosphate buffer, _________________________ will react. dihydrogen phosphate
The three regulation processes which control blood pH, in order of increasing effectiveness, are: buffer systems, ventilation depth and speed, and H+ secretion in the kidney
The three regulation processes which control blood pH, in order of increasing speed in regulation, are: H+ secretion in the kidney, ventilation depth and speed, and buffer systems
Increasing glomerular capillary pressure (GCP) will increase the _____________________ glomerular filtration rate (GFR)
The proper range of blood pH 7.35 to 7.45
Retroperitoneal Behind the parietal peritoneum
Erythropoiesis The production of red blood cells (erythrocytes)
Filtrate Blood plasma without proteins, found in the nephrons of the kidneys
Renal blood flow rate The rate at which the blood flows through the kidneys (1 liter/minute)
Glomerular filtration rate The rate at which filtrate is produced in glomerular filtration (125 mL/minute)
Tubular maximum The maximum rate of reabsorption by active transport through the nephron tubules
Buffer system A mixture of an acid and a base which resists changes in pH
Created by: q



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