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Medication Admin.

adverse reaction any noxious, unintended, and undesired result of taking a drug in appropriate doses; also called an adverse effect
allergic reaction an immune response to a drug, ranging in intensity from mild itching to severe rash to anaphylaxis
anaphylaxis an immediate and life-threatening allergic response characterized by bronchospasm, laryngeal edema, and a rapid drop in blood pressure
buccal pertaining to or directed toward the (cheek), the fleshy portion of the side of the face that makes up the lateral wall of the oral cavity
compatible capable of harmonious coexistence; used to refer to two or more medications that can be given simultaneously without changing the effects of each other or causing any new responses not seen with any of the drugs administered alone
contraindication a pre-existing condition that makes it unsafe or otherwise inappropriate to administer a particular drug
dosage the determination and regulation of the size, frequency, and number of doses of a medication to be given to or taken by an individual patient
dose a measured quantity to be administered at one time, such as a specified amount of medication
drug any chemical or other nondrug substance that can affect living processes
duration of action how long a drug actively produces a therapeutic effect
enteral within or by way of the intestines
generic referring to a noncommercial name assigned to a drug, usually less complex than the drug’s chemical name and more complex than a brand or trade; also known as a nonproprietary name
idiosyncratic reaction an uncommon, unexpected, or individual drug response thought to result from a genetic predisposition
indication a reason for administering a particular medication
instillation administration of a liquid drop by drop
intradermal within or into the dermis (skin)
intramuscular within or into a muscle
intravenous within or into a vein
medication term used for drug when it is given to or taken by a particular individual for therapeutic purposes
medication administration record (MAR) a document that is completed as per agency policy to verify that a patient’s medications were administered as prescribed
narcotic an umbrella term that has been used to refer to opioids, controlled substances, illicit drugs, central nervous system depressants, strong analgesics, and drugs capable of causing physical dependence
nebulizer a device for creating and delivering an aerosol spray
NPO nothing by mouth, derived from the Latin words nil per os
onset of action the point in time after administration when a drug begins to exert its therapeutic effect
ophthalmic pertaining to the eye
over-the-counter referring to drugs sold without a prescription
paradoxical reaction causing an effect opposite of the intended effect
parenteral via a route other than the gastrointestinal tract, such as subcutaneous, intramuscular, intrathecal, or intravenous
peak action the point in time after administration when a drug exerts its maximal therapeutic effect
plateau a steady level of a drug achieved after repeated doses; a state in which the amount of drug eliminated between doses equals the amount administered with each dose
polypharmacy the concurrent use of multiple drugs
PRN as needed, derived from the Latin words pro re nata
side effect any unintended and usually predictable result of taking a drug in appropriate doses
subcutaneous under the skin
sublingual under the tongue
synergistic effect an increase in the effects of any or all of two or more drugs taken together
therapeutic effect the beneficial and intended result for which a drug is taken
topical applied externally
toxic effect a seriously adverse drug reaction; caused by excessive dosing
transdermal entering through the dermis (skin); usually refers to a drug applied to the skin via an adhesive patch
unit-dose system provision of drugs in single-dose packages
chemical names description of drugs chemical composition and molecular structure
brand name what the drug is sold as in stores
official name generic name that is listed in publications
prescription drugs require written order from a healthcare provider who is licensed by the state to prescribe or dispense drugs
Advil, Nuprin, Motrin are brand names but are all... ibuprofen
what are the three ways a drug can be classified? usage, body system, and chemical or pharmacological class
Ibuprofen is a...? analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic agent
Diazapam (valium) acts on anti anxiety effects, decreased activity of intestinal system and smooth muscles
What are four ways a drug can be named brand, chemical, generic, official
what is drug administration controlled by? federal, state and local laws
controlled substances drugs considered to have either limited medical use or high potential for abuse of addiction
stock supply bulk quantity, labeled and in central location
automated dispensing system computer database that contains records and counts the medications, med prescription
what legislation defines controlled substances in the United States? US. DEA
How is medication quality managed? stock supply, unit-dose, and automated dispensing systems
pharmacokinetics refers to the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of a drug
absorption movement of drug from administration site into the blood stream
where does excretion occur? liver, kidneys, lungs, skin
where does metabolism primarily occur? in the liver
local effect occur at the site of application (no or limited absorption occurs)
systemic effect absorbed into blood stream before it can be distributed to distant location
solubility of a drug ability of medication to be transformed into a liquid form that can be absorbed into the bloodstream
When does absorption occur more? with highly soluble drugs
oral medications must be water soluble and partially lipid soluble to be absorbed in the GI tract
water soluble drugs more rapidly absorbed from GI tract and take effect faster
lipid soluble drugs penetrate lipid-rich cell membranes and enter cells; preferred when longer affect is desired; more slowly released into the circulatory system
highly fat-soluble drugs can pass through brain barrier and effect sedation (nitrous oxide)
enteric-coated drugs cannot be broken down by gastric acids because coating prevents medication from being diluted before reaches intestines; delays the action of the drug and decreases irritating effects on stomach
time-release (sustained-release) drugs medications formulated to dissolve slowly; releasing small amounts for absorption over several hours
acidic medications more readily absorbed in the stomach (Aspirin)
basic (alkaline) medications readily absorbed in the small intestine; sodium bicarbonate
ionized molecules electrically charged; lipid insoluble (cannot pass through phosolipid layer of cell membranes; can easily converted from one form to another
lower pH pass through membranes quicker
higher pH takes longer to pass through membranes
a patient that is in shock lacks blood supply, what route of administration would be best? intravenous because it does not have to be absorbed
what factos affect absorption? pH, solubility, bloow flow, ionization
distribution transportation of a drug in body fluids tot he various tissues and organs of the body
what does the rate of distribution depend on? the local blood flow in the target area
target area where drug effect occur
what determines the intensity and duration of a drugs actions? absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion
with oral and enteral medications, they travel through the stomach and intestine. What happens after this? it is absorbed into the the bloodstream
vasodilation increases circulation; application of warmth, fever, rest
vasoconstriction decreases circulation; shock, chilling of the body
membrane permeability drug molecules must leave the blood and cross capillaries to reach site of action
If liver function is impaired, the elimination of drugs slows. What can happen due to this? toxic levels may accumulate
A patient with diabetes does not metabolize sugar effectively, what should they not take? elixirs because they are high in sugar content
What is the term for when an oral medication almost completely is inactivated when passing through the liver? first-pass effect
oral medications can be formulated with higher concentrations of the drug than parenteral medications because... it allows the drug to be distributed directly to target sites
Enterohepatic recirculation fat soluble agents that are reabsorbed by the bloodstream, distributed to target its, and returned to the liver; anything that increases peristalsis
what are the 4 things that determine drug effectiveness? onset, peak, and duration of drug action therapeutic ranges bioavaiability of the drug at target sites concentration of drug at target sites
when a serum level of medication is lower that the minimum effective concentration what happens? it is not effective during that time
when drug level in higher than the peak level what happens? drug toxicity
even when absorption stops.. distribution, metabolism, excretion continue
trough level lowest concentration; right before next dose is due
biological half-life time it takes for half of the drug to be eliminated
what are the reasons medications are given? palliative effects, supportive effects, substitutive effects, chemotherapeutic effects, restorative effects
palliative effects relieve signs and symptoms of disease but have no effect on disease itself
supportive effects support integrity of body functions until meds/treatment can become effective
substitutive effects replace either body fluids or a chemical required by the body for improved functioning
chemotherapeutic effects destroy disease-producing microorganisms or body cells
restorative effect return the body to or maintain the body at optimal levels of health
cumulative effect increase response to repeated doses of a drug that occurs when the rate of administration is greater than the rate of metabolism/excretion
drug interaction one drug alters or modifies action of another
antagonistic drug relationship one drug interferes with actions of another and decreases resultant drug effect
tolerance decreasing response to repeated doses of a medication
dependence persons reliance on, or need for drug
drug abuse inappropriate intake of a substance by amount, type, or situation, continuously or periodically
illicit drugs street drugs, sold illegally
What are three ways of medication measurement? metric system, apothecary system, household system
metric system allows for calculations of small dosages
apothecary system british measurement, only a few medications measured using this, usually written using roman numerals
household system less precise, can lead to medication dosage error
what are electrolytes measured in? MEq
What are the types of medication prescriptions? standard written, automatic stop dates, STAT, single, standing orders, prn prescription
If a prescription is given verbally, how long does the provider have to cosign? 24 hours
while administering medications you should asses your patients mental status, coordination, ability to self-administer, swallowing
after medication patients, you should asses effectiveness of drug, side effects, signs of toxicity/adverse reactions
What are the three checks for administering medications? before, after, at bedside
what are the six rights? right medication, right dose, right route, right patient, right time, right documentation
what type of medications should you NOT administer through a feeding tube? hydrophilic
what should you do when you need to administer medications to a person with a continuous feeding tube? disconnect before giving the medications
what do you do when administering medications to a patient with enteral tube suction? discontinue the suction for 30 minutes after administration by keeping the tube clamped to allow the drug to be absorbed
what is the formula for dimensional analysis? X= quantity/have x desired
what is the formula for ration and porportion? have/quantity = desired/X
what is the formula for desired over have method? desired/have x quantity = X
AC before meals
PC after meals
daily every day
STAT given immediately
PO by mouth
SL sublingually
ID intradermal
IM intramuscular
IV intravenous
top topical
p after
c with
s without
liq liquid
susp suspension
parenteral intramuscular, subcutaneous, intradermal, intravenous, intrathecal, epidural
nonparenteral oral, sublingual, topical, transdermal, ophthalmic, otic, nasal, rectal, vaginal
canthus angles formed by an eyes upper lid meeting lower lid
cerumen waxlike substance found within the external meatus or ear; earwax
conjunctival sac space between the eyelids and the eyeball
dermatitis inflammation of the skin
dorsal recumbent position lying on back with knees flexed
eczema long term, inflammatory skin condition that can appear as red, blistering, oozing, scaly, crusted, thickened, itchy skin rashes
enteral within or by way of the intestines
ethmoid sinuses air cavities on each side of the nose within the ethmoid bone, maintaining a separate path to the nasal chamber
eustachian tubes bony and cartilaginous passageways connecting the middle ears with the nasopharynx and equalizing air pressure on both sides of the tympanic membrane
expectorate expel secretions from the throat or lungs by coughing and spitting
frontal sinuses air cavities with in the frontal bone
instillation administration of a liquid drop by drop
intraocular medication disk small medication-delivery device resembling a contact lens and inserted into the conjunctival sac so it floats on sclera between iris and lower lid
liniment liquid or semiliquid preparation containing oil, alcohol, or water and applied to the skin often as a counterirritant
maxillary sinuses air cavities in the maxilla below the bony orbit and above the hard palate that drain into the middle meatus of nasal cavity
meter-dosed inhaler medication-delivery device that disperses medication as an aerosol spray, mist, or powder into airways via inhaltion
mydriatic any drug that dilates pupil
naris external orifices of the nose
ointment semisolid preparation
pinna external ear
pruritus itching
sim's position lying on side with lowermost arm behind body and uppermost leg flexed
sphenoid sinuses air cavities in sphenoid bone that drain into the sphenoethmoidal recess at the top of the nasal cavities
suppurating forming/ discharging pus
suspension liquid preparation, consisting of solid particles dispersed throughout liquid phase in which they are not soluble
a patient is using a MDI and needs to take more than one puff of the same medication, how long should he/she wait in between puffs? 20-30 minutes
tympanic membrane obliquely placed, thin partition between the external acoustic meatus an the eardrum
small-volume nebulizers handheld device that deliver medication continuously for a short period of time
when should a patient use an aerosol mask? when they cannot hold nebulizer mouthpiece
what should patients do if they are receiving corticosteroids and using MDI or small-volume nebulizer? rinse mouth with warm water after treatment
what should a patient do before administering nasal medications? blow nose gently to clear mucous and secretions and place patient in supine position with head positioned properly
when you are trying to administer nasal drops to the posterior pharynx how should the head be positioned? tilt head backward
when you are trying to administer nasal drops to the ethmoid or sphenoid sinus, how should the head be positioned? tilt head backward over the edge of the ned or small pillow
when you are trying to administer nasal drops to the frontal or maximally sinus, how should the head be positioned? tilt head over edge of bed or over pillow with head turned to the side
how should nasal spray be administered? sit up right with head slightly hyperextended
rebound effect prolonged used of nasal spray that increases mucosal swelling and nasal congestion
What position should a patient be in that had NG tube before administering medications? High Fowler's position
Before administering medications to a patient with an NG tube, what should you check? tube placement by aspirating a small amount of gastric contents through the NG or enteral tube with a syringe and checking the pH of the contents
what is the average size syringe used when checking gastric residual? 60 mL
After you check the gastric residual, what should you do? flush with 15 mL of sterile water
A patient is on continuous feeding, what should you do when administering medications? stop feeding for 30 minutes while giving the medications and then flushing the tube with 15-30 mL of sterile water and resuming feeding at least 30 minutes after. The head needs to be elevated for at least one hour after medicating
to prevent NG or enteral tube from being occluded, what should you do? flush tube with 15-30 mL of sterile water before and after administering medications
where should ophthalmic drops be administered? the conjunctival sac
where should ophthalmic ointments be administered? from the inner canthus to the outer canthus
if the ophthalmic medications produce a systemic effect what should you do when administering the medication? apply gentle pressure to the nasolacrimal duct 30-60 seconds to prevent medications from entering the nasal/pharyngeal passages and being absorbed by systemic circulation
When using otic medications, what prevents dizziness, nausea? keeping the medication at room temperature
what should you do when administering otic drops to an adult? pull pinna up and outward
what should you do when administering otic drops to a child younger than three? pull pinna down and back
what position should a patient who is receiving rectal suppositories be in? left lateral sim's position for approx. 5 minutes after administration
when using nitroglycerin ointment what should you do before administering another dose? remove the previous dose to prevent an inadvertent overdose
What is important to do when using nitroglycerin ointment? make sure you use the measuring strips to ensure accurate dose; secure the strip to the skin to allow for gradual absorption, label the patch or dressing with date, time and initials
What is important a patient do before using a dry-powder inhaler? make sure the patient can inhale deeply
Created by: BrookeMcCullen