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Apologia Human Body

Module 14

QuestionAnswer
Upper respiratory tract The part of the respiratory system containing the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, and pharynx
Lower respiratory tract The part of the respiratory system containing the larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs
Ventilation The process of getting air into the lungs and getting it back out
External respiration The process of O₂ and CO₂ exchange between the alveoli and the blood
Internal respiration The process of O₂ and CO₂ exchange between the cells and the blood
Pneumothorax Air in the pleural cavity, which leads to a collapsed lung
Surfactant A molecule with a hydrophilic end and a hydrophobic end
Compliance The ease with which the lungs inflate
Aspirate To take in by means of suction
Tidal volume The volume of air inhaled or exhaled during normal, quiet breathing
Functional residual capacity The volume of air left in the lungs after a normal exhalation
Total lung capacity The maximum volume of air contained in the lungs after a forceful inhalation
Residual volume The volume of air left in the lungs after a forceful exhalation
The six layers of the respiratory membrane Capillary endothelium, basement membrane of capillary endothelium, interstitial space, basement membrane of alveolar epithelium, alveolar epithelium, alveolar fluid
A lung infection which builds up fluid in the alveoli pneumonia
Difficulty inhaling due to a lack of surfactant in the alveoli respiratory distress syndrome
Difficulty exhaling due to lack of elastic tissue emphysema
A loss of negative pressure in the pleural cavity pneumothorax
When a person's diaphragm is contracted, the pressure in the lungs is ________________ compared to that of the atmosphere while the air is still flowing. lower
A person's abdominal muscles are tightly contracted for breathing, meaning that they are ________________. forcefully exhaling
A person's sternocleidomastoid and scalene muscles are contracted as far as possible for breathing, so the volume of the air is closest to the _________________. total lung capacity
A person's airway becomes partially blocked due to an obstruction, so of the six factors which increase the efficiency of external respiration, ____________________ is affected. controlled relationship between ventilation and blood flow
In the Hering-Breuer reflex, receptors in the bronchioles send signals to the _____________________. medulla
In the Hering-Breuer reflex, receptors in the bronchioles send signals that are __________________. inhibitory
If blood pH is falling, the respiratory system can ________________ to rectify the situation. increase rate and depth of ventilation
Created by: q