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Genes Evolution

Revision for Year 8 Evolution test

What does 'biodiversity' mean? The variety of living things.
Name an ecosystem that is really biodiverse. Tropical rainforest. Coral reef.
Name an ecosystem that has very low biodiversity. Desert, Antartic.
Why is a desert very low in biodiversity? Because it is a very harsh environment and difficult for organisms to live in.
What is the definition of an ecosystem. The name given to the plants and animals that are found in a particular location and the area in which they live.
What does interdependence mean? The way that organisms depend on each other for basic needs like food and shelter.
Why is it better for an ecosystem to be more biodiverse? Having lots of different species means that there are plenty of resources for other populations, including humans.
What is a species? A group of organisms which have similar characteristics and can breed with each other to produce fertile offspring.
What does 'variation' in a species mean. Differences in characteristics.
How does a reduction in biodiversity affect humans? Humans rely on other organisms for many things including food, clothing, shelter, drugs. Any reduction in the number of living organisms will reduce resources for humans.
What sort of human activities reduce biodiversity? Destroying habitats. Poisoning rivers and land with pesticides.. Building cities and reducing animal habitats. Climate change.
How are living things dependent on each other? For food, shelter ...even for oxygen (plants produce this).
What does 'evolution' mean? The development of a species over time.
What is 'natural selection'? A process by which organisms with characteristics that are most suited to the environment survive and reproduce, passing on their genes.
What is a 'vertebrate'? An animal with a backbone.
What does ' environment' mean? The conditions around an organism caused by physical environmental factors. (E.g temperature).
How do animals adapt to winter? Hibernation, migration, grow thicker fur.
What is a predator? An animal that hunts kills and eats other animals.
What is a carnivore? An animal that feeds on other animals.
What is a herbivore? An animal that feeds only on plants.
What is prey? An animal that is hunted and killed by another for food.
What will happen to the number of predators (e.g. cheetah) if their prey numbers reduce. Their population numbers will reduce because there is not enough food for them.
What will happen to the number of prey if the number of their predators increases? The number of prey will reduce because more are being eaten.
What does 'extinction' mean? A species becomes extinct when there are no more individuals left anywhere in the world.
How do we know that there were different species alive a long time ago? From the fossil record.
What are endangered species? Species of plants and animals that only have a small population in the world.
How can we help prevent extinction? By storing genetic samples of organisms in a gene bank.
What does 'competition' mean? When two or more organisms struggle against each other to get the same resource.
What do plants compete for? Light, water, space and minerals.
What do animals compete for? Food, water, territory, shelter and mates.
What does 'adaptation' mean? The changes that plants and animals develop in order to survive.
What are the features of a mammal? Warm blooded, has hair, feeds its young milk.
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