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evol. psy 307 ch5

p. 152-172 end ch 5

blind from birth men prefer the low WHR mannequins
men rate women with lower than local average WHR most attractive regardless of breast size
short term mating strategy men more likely to approach women with low WHR
statistically controlling BMI may limit WHR prediction of attractiveness judgments (further research)
men rate physical attractiveness as more important in determining a mate than do women
importance of physical attractiveness in determining a mate increased in US from 1939 to 1996
cultural evolution cultural change can be described as a Darwinian evolutionary process that is similar to biological/genetic evolution.
men may be able to detect when women are ovulating (flushed slightly tightened skin, decrease in WHR/estrogen level, touched more in singles bars, more attractive odor, higher pitched voices)
luteal phase after ovulation (when your ovaries release an egg) and before your period starts; more attractive by both sexes
ovulating lap dancers got higher tips
women-initiated contact hypothesis women reported desire increased as ovulation approached possibly signaled by increased skin exposure
cryptic (concealed) ovulation men attracted throughout ovulatory cycle, reduces paternity confidence (constant mate guarding impossible), marriage
marriage men learned fidelity cues (premarital chastity and postmarital sexual fidelity)
premarital chastity desirability waning with increased use of birth control
male investment searching, courting, competing
men in cultures with differing views, more than women, still value chastity in potential long-term mate
cultural variability in preference for chastity may relate to incidence of premarital sex, degree demandable, women's economic independence, reliability of evaluation, verifiability
premarital sexual permissiveness predicts cuckoldry (promiscuity)
infidelity more upsetting to men
heterosexual men 96-8%
heterosexual women 98-9%
kin altruism theory (no US empirical support: gay men more estranged from relatives) genes for homosexual orientation evolved because homosexuals invest heavily enough in genetic relatives (Samoan support)
female fertility hypothesis genes for male homosexuality evolve if they produce an increase reproductive rate in female relatives (strongest support)
alliance formation theory (not true for most cultures) homoerotic behavior by younger men with older men gains allies, boosting status and extra sex for father
high status, wealthier men marry younger brides
advertising standards of beauty for men embody reliable cues to fertility and reproductive value exploiting mechanisms designed for a different environment
contrast effect viewing highly attractive women or getting positive receptive cues lowers levels of men's commitment (Not women's)
advertising standards of beauty for women create a spiraling and unhealthy competition with other women (eating disorders, cosmetic surgery)
after marriage men have lower testosterone levels to facilitate pair-bonding and parental effort
interacting with an attractive woman increases testosterone levels and risk taking
mating effort hypothesis men in relationships who pursue additional matings have higher testosterone levels that those who stay monogamous
budget allocation method (mating dollars) low: men buy attractive women resources (as per mate preferences); more: buy luxuries (kindness,creativity, liveliness)
men respond to more ads and ads from younger women who mentioned physical attractiveness
US men's first, second and third marriage age exceed women's ages by 3, 5 and 8 years respectively
men in polygamous cultures marry even younger women as they get older
attentional adhesion men took longer to redirect attention from attractive women
men who believed they were talking to an attractive women lowered their voice pitch, sounding more pleasant to raters and increased skin conductance (mating anxiety)
smaller, younger, big tit, blond waitresses received more tips
men paid more for engagement rings for younger bride-to-be
calling a competitor promiscuous was judged to be more effective for women than men (fidelity preferences)
sexual competition hypothesis eating disorders are maladaptive by-products of a mate competition strategy of pursuing thinness
US runaway intrasexual competition to appear youthful caused by men's desire for attractiveness, thin media models, high levels of health in US
Created by: james22222222