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psy 307 evol. Ch 3

Evolutionary Psychology ch 3 p. 82-96

emergence of strong male coalition hunting big game, group on group aggression and defense and in-group alliances
strong reciprocal altruism, social exchange variable success of large animal hunting favours sharing, storing surplus meat in friends' bodies
sexual division of labour men's strength, size and throwing prowess suited for hunting to exchange for women's plant foods
emergence of tool use needed for killing and separating flesh
show-off hypothesis women want meat gifts and reward men for show-off strategy
successful hunters have more desirable mate, better offspring survival
men hunted not for provisioning, but for status of wide sharing
men's risky endeavors to provision and get favors from showing off
gathering hypothesis stone tools invented for digging and gathering plants enabling leaving forests
gathering hypothesis criticism fails to tell why men hunt, invest in children, have strong reciprocal alliances, why women share with men, live in areas with few plants, why humans have meat gut
specific spacial ability sex difference explained by hunting and gathering
hunting skills navigation, map reading, mental rotations needed to hurl spears, know Euclidean directions
gathering skills object location memory, knowledge about plants, use more concrete landmarks for directions
savanna hypothesis preference for wide-open vistas with few trees
natural environments preferred to human-made
savanna hypothesis stages selection, information gathering, exploitation
selection explore or leave (devoid of cover, closed forest canopies)
information gathering look for resources and dangers (prefer mystery, resources vs risks)
exploitation good foraging vs predators
savanna hypothesis preferences signals of harvest (green grass, budding trees, bush fruit, flowers)
fear normal response to realistic danger
phobias fears beyond voluntary control and wildly out of proportion to danger
ways fear and anxiety afford protection freezing, fleeing, fighting, submission or appeasement, fright (play dead), faint (signal not threat)
faint at sight of blood or weapon helps warfare noncombatants (women and children)
evolved physiological reactions epinephrine (fear): aids blood clotting, releases glucose, speeds heart, diverts stomach blood
common fears snakes, spiders, heights, imminent attack (panic), agoraphobia, small animals, disease, anxiety (separation), stranger, social, mating
specific fears emerge when danger would have been encountered
crawling fears spiders, falls, (male) strangers
more adult women develop fears and phobias of snakes and spiders, assault, robbery, burglary, rape, car accidents
sexual selection created risk-taking strategies in men
evolutionary psychological basis includes emotional reactions, attending and perception
snakes and spiders popped out of the visual array
changes in approaching sounds are perceived as greater than equivalent changes in receding sounds
children's three required cognitive skills category of predator, inference that predators motivated to eat prey, knowing death is potential outcome of predator interaction
descent illusion 32% greater distance viewing from top that bottom
adaptive biases erring in the direction of making less costly error
Created by: james22222222