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Psy Evol Ch2 P.35-51


Karl Grammar (1996) research single bar men touch more when women fertile: female clues (dress) vs male adaptions sense ovulation
Gangestad (2004) research ovulating women initiate more sexual encounters
evolutionary psychology synthesis of evolutionary biology and psychology
creationism intelligent design: not falsifiable, not predictive or explanitory
seeding theory life arrived on earth via a meteorite or ET visit: no evidence, no new research, pushes causal chain back in time
evolution by natural selection explains known facts, yields predictions, guides inquiry
products of evolution adaptations, by-products (concomitants), random effects (noise)
by products "carried along" with characteristics that have functional design (e.g. belly button)
noise chance mutations, sudden environmental changes, chance developmental effects (shape of one's belly button)
most adaptations species typical (walking, breasts)
selection fashions adaptations by filtering out features not contributing to propagation
function of adaptation how it contributes to survival or reproduction
adaptation evololutions helpful mutations passed down and spread in entire species
environment of evolutionary adaptedness (EEA) statistical composite of selection pressures for adaptations's period of evolution
EEA selection forces or adaptive problems that shaped it
adaptation's period of evolution time span during which it was constructed until it characterized universal species design
adaptations are the primary product of evolution by selection
core of all animal natures a large collection of adaptations (eyes, ears, taste buds, bones ...)
general evolutionary theory evolution by natural selection
middle-level evolutionary theories parasite-host coevolution, parental investment and sexual selection, reciprocal altruism
specific evolutionary hypotheses females select mates based on their ability and willingness to contribute resources
specific predictions derived from hypotheses women prefer high status men that invest in them; they divorce non-investors
only evolutionary theory can create complex functional design
humans spent 99% of their evolutionary history as hunter-gatherers
evaluation of evolution rests on the cumulative weight of the evidence
top-down (theory-driven) approach for generating and testing evolutionary hypotheses start at top with general evolutionary theory and derive hypotheses
bottom-up (observation-driven) approach for generating and testing evolutionary hypotheses develop hypothesis about adaptive function based on a known observation
low WHR women get pregnant sooner, show lower incidence of heart disease and endocrinological problems - higher fertility
most attractive WHR .70
value of an evolutionary hypothesis depends partly on its precision
all species have a nature
psychological theories require core fundamental premises about human nature; explicitly or implicitly evolutionary
evolutionary psychology focuses on the analysis of the human mind as a collection of evolved mechanisms
evolved psychological mechanism solved a specific problem of survival or reproduction recurrently over evolutionary history; takes in narrow slice of information;
input of evolved psychological mechanism tells particular adaptive problem faced: snake-bite damage; rancid smell-food selection
input of evolved psychological mechanism transformed through decision rules to output: if angry rival stronger then avoid fight
output of evolved psychological mechanism can be physiological activity, information to other psychological mechanisms, or manifest behavior: snake-aroused
output of evolved psychological mechanism is directed toward the solution of a specific adaptive problem: jealous; output on average leads to a successful solution in evolutionary past
Created by: james22222222