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Biology EOC

Biology EOC prep

Monomer The small building block molecule that makes up a polymer, like boxcars of a train.
Polymer A large molecule made up of repeating subunits called monomers.
Enzymes Protein that speed up chemical reactions by reducing the amount of activation needed to start them.
Carbohydrates Biomolecules made up of monosaccharides and are our primary source of quick energy. CHO are in a ratio of about 1:2:1
Proteins Biomolecules made up of amino acids which serve several functions, including enzymes, some hormones, structural molecules, and cell transport (embedded in the cell membrane)
Nucleic acids Biomolecules made up of nucleotides that either code for proteins (DNA, your genes) or help assemble amino acids to MAKE proteins according to the code (RNA, gene expression).
Lipids Biomolecules made up of a backbone of glycerol and 3 fatty acid chains that provide long term energy, main component of the cell membrane, or make up oils and waxes. Much higher in carbon and hydrogen, and lower in oxygen than carbohyrates.
Monosaccharides Monomers that make up carbohydrates.
Polysaccharides AKA Starch. Long chains of monosaccharides. Not sweet tasting. Found in bread, pasta, cereals, plant cell walls. Can be broken down into monosaccharides during digestion.
Nucleotides Monomers that make up nucleic acids. Composed of a sugar (deoxyribose in DNA or ribose in RNA), a phosphate, and a nitrogen base (either Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, or Guanine)
Dehydration synthesis The process that links monomers together to form polymers. 2 hydrogens and 1 oxygen are released, forming water. Dehydration: water removal. Synthesis: building
Prokaryote A small, primitive (simple) cell that does not have a nucleus or any other membrane-bound organelles. Bacteria ONLY
Eukaryote A larger cell that has a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles. Includes all Protists, Fungi, Animals, and Plants (everything except bacteria)
Organelle A structure inside of a cell that has a specific function. Examples: nucleus, mitochondria, lysosomes, chloroplasts, ER, Golgi body
Virus A nonliving structure, composed of a nucleic acid and a protein coat, that invades living cells, takes them over, and tricks them into make more viruses, causing cell death
Homeostasis Maintaining a constant, internal environment. Example: body temperature, blood pH, etc
Osmosis The passive transport (doesn't require energy) of water across a semi-permeable membrane from an area of high to low concentration
Diffusion The passive transport (doesn't require energy) of small molecules other than water from an area of high to low concentration
Passive transport Transport into and/or out of a cell WITHOUT the use of energy (osmosis, diffusion, or facilitated diffusion). Movement is always from high to low concentration
ATP Adenosine Triphosphate - energy of the cell. Energy is released when the third phosphate is removed, leaving an ADP molecule and a phosphate that can be put back together during cellular respiration.
Endocytosis A form of active transport (requires energy) where the cell engulfs large particles into itself
Semi-permeable Refers to the cell membrane, which allows some substances to pass through, but not others.
Cell membrane The outside barrier of the cell, composed of a phospholipid bilayer and embedded proteins, that controls what enters and leaves the cell.
Chromosome DNA tightly coiled around proteins. Contained in the nucleus. Humans have 46.
Double helix The shape of DNA. Looks like a twisted ladder.
Diploid (2n) 2 sets of chromosomes, one from each parent. All body cells of humans are diploid.
Haploid (n) 1 set of chromosomes. Human gametes (egg and sperm) are haploid.
Cancer A condition caused by cells losing their ability to control their cell cycle, causing them to divide rapidly and uncontrollably, which can make them stop functioning and spread to other organs, invading them and preventing them from functioning properly.
Somatic A body cell (non reproductive cell)
Polypeptide Another word for protein. A polymer (chain) of many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.
RNA The nucleic acid which copies (mRNA) the DNA code, interprets (rRNA) the code, and assembles (tRNA) the resulting protein
Uracil The nitrogen base that replaces Thymine in RNA. Bonds with Adenine
Mutation An error in the DNA code. Can be harmless, harmful, or helpful.
Deletion mutation A point mutation where one nitrogen base is deleted, causing the frames to shift (a type of frameshift mutation)
Deletion mutation THE CAT ATE THE RAT ------> TEC ARA TET HER AT
Ribosome Cell organelle (made of rRNA) where proteins are assembled. Both prokaryotes and eukarotes have them.
Codon A nitrogen base triplet in DNA or RNA. Codes for one amino acid. Example: TAC will code for methionine.
Anticodon A nitrogen base triplet on tRNA that is complementary to the codon on mRNA. Used to match the correct amino acid with the correct codon.
tRNA Transfer RNA - brings amino acids to the ribosome for protein synthesis. The anticodon on tRNA matches with the codon on mRNA for correct placement
mRNA Messenger RNA - transcribes the DNA code inside the nucleus and carries it to the ribosome (in the cytoplasm) for translation
Transcription When mRNA copies the DNA code inside the nucleus. Complementary base pairs join with one side of the "ladder"
Translation When the mRNA, rRNA (ribosomes), and tRNA work together to assemble amino acids into a protein (occurs in the cytoplasm)
Recombinant DNA DNA from 2 different species combined. Often used to produce drugs for humans like insulin. It's possible for bacteria to produce human hormones because the genetic code is universal
Meiosis A type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half. In humans, this is used to make gametes (sperm and egg). Involves 2 divisions, producing 4 daughter cells.
Crossing over When homologous chromosomes exchange genes just before dividing during meiosis. Contributes to genetic variation.
Differentiation When stem cells specialize and take on specific functions as a new organism is developing. Example: stem cell (which can become any kind of cell) becomes a heart cell, or a nerve cell, etc
Homologous chromosomes A pair of chromosomes that carry the same kind of information. For example: one of your pairs of chromosomes might carry the gene for brown eyes from your father, and the other one of the pair might carry the genes for blue eyes from your mother.
Gamete The haploid cell that forms as a result of meiosis for the purpose of sexual reproduction. Examples: sperm in males and egg in females
Karyotype A picture of one's chromosomes, usually done during pregnancy, to determine if a developing baby has a chromosome error. Typically done in older mothers as they are more at risk of their egg cells having a chromosome error occur during meiosis.
Monosomy Chromosomal abnormality consisting of the absence of one chromosome from the normal diploid number. Results from nondisjunction
Trisomy A genetic condition of having three chromosomes instead of two. Results from nondisjunction
Nondisjunction Error in meiosis in which homologous chromosomes fail to separate. Causes some cells to get an extra chromosome (trisomy) and some cells to be missing a chromosome (monosomy)
Sex chromosomes The pair of chromosomes that determine gender. Males are XY, females are XX
Allele An alternative form of a gene. Dominant or recessive
Dominant trait Describes a trait that covers over, or dominates, another form of that trait. Example: Pea plants with the genotypes TT and Tt will both be tall
Recessive trait An allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present. Example: A pea plant with the genotype Tt will be tall, but one with the genotype tt will be short
Heterozygous Having two different alleles for a trait. Example: Tt. Also called "hybrid"
Homozygous Having two of the same alleles for a trait: Example: TT or tt Also called "pure bred"
Codominance A condition in which both alleles are dominant and show up in t. Example: a the phenotype.
Sex linked trait a trait that is determined by a gene found on one of the sex chromosomes, such as the X chromosome
Gene a segment of DNA that codes for a protein (produces a trait)
Natural Selection A process in which individuals that have certain inherited traits tend to survive and reproduce at higher rates than other individuals because of those traits. Can cause change in POPULATIONS over time (evolution)
Adaptation A trait that helps an organism survive and reproduce
Carrying capacity Largest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support
Vestigial structures remnant of a structure that may have had an important function in a species' ancestors, but has no clear function in the modern species. Evidence of evolution
Variation Differences between members of the same species. MUST be present in a population ALREADY for natural selection to occur
Population A group of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area
Genetic drift A change in the allele frequency of a population as a result of chance events rather than natural selection. Typically effects small populations
Gene flow Movement of alleles into or out of a population due to the migration of individuals to or from the population
Gene pool Combined genetic information of all the members of a particular population
Fungi A kingdom made up of nongreen, eukaryotic organisms that have no means of movement, reproduce by using spores, and get food by breaking down substances in their surroundings and absorbing the nutrients. Cell walls are made of chitin
Protist Kingdom composed of eukaryotes that are not classified as plants, animals, or fungi. Cell wall composition varies: Some don't have them, others have chitin, cellulose, pectin, silicon, etc
Lytic cycle a viral reproductive cycle in which copies of a virus are made within a host cell, which then bursts open, releasing new viruses
Cilia the fine hair-like projections from certain kinds of cells. They line the respiratory tract and help trap and expel pathogens
Taxonomy A scientific discipline concerned with naming and classifying the diverse forms of life.
Binomial nomenclature Classification system in which each species is assigned a two-part scientific name. First word is the genus name, capitalized. Second word is the species name, uncapitalized. Both words are underlined or italicized
Plantae Kingdom of multicellular photosynthetic autotrophs that have cell walls containing cellulose
Heterotroph An organism that obtains organic food molecules by eating other organisms or substances derived from them.
Photosynthesis 6CO2 + 6H2O --> C6H12O6 + 6O2 , A process used by plants and other autotrophs to capture light energy and use it to power chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and energy-rich carbohydrates, such as sugars and starches.
Xylem Vascular tissue that carries water and dissolved minerals from the roots of a plant to its leaves. (Hint: Xy - High)
Phloem Vascular tissue that carries sugar and organic substances throughout a plant (Hint: Phlo - Low)
Root An organ in vascular plants that anchors the plant and enables it to absorb water and minerals from the soil. Also functions in food storage
Stem Contain xylem and phloem, creates a passage way between leaves and roots, gives structure to plant
Stomata A microscopic pore surrounded by guard cells in the epidermis of leaves and stems that allows gas exchange between the environment and the interior of the plant.
Thigmotropism A directional growth of a plant in response to touch. Controlled by the plant hormone auxin
Phototropism Plant growth in response to light. Controlled by the plant hormone auxin
Chlorophyll Green pigment in plants that absorbs light energy used to carry out photosynthesis
Chloroplast An organelle found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occurs
Ecosystem A system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with their physical environment
Commensalism A symbiotic relationship between two organisms of different species where one benefits and the other is neither harmed nor benefited
Mutualism A symbiotic relationship between two species in which both species benefit
Parasitism A symbiotic relationship between two organisms of different species where one benefits and the other is harmed
Primary succession An ecological succession that begins in an area where no biotic community previously existed. Lichen is the typical pioneer species
Secondary succession Succession following a disturbance that destroys a community without destroying the soil
Pioneer species First species to populate an area
Food web A community of organisms where there are several interrelated food chains
Food chain A series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten
Producer An organism that can make its own food. An autotroph. Is on the 1st trophic level
Consumer An organism that eats other organisms
Primary consumer An organism that eats producers. Is on the 2nd trophic level
Secondary consumer An organism that eats primary consumers. Is on the 3rd trophic level
Tertiary consumer An organism that eats secondary consumers. Is on the 4th trophic level
Biomagnification Increase in concentration of certain stable chemicals (for example, heavy metals or fat-soluble pesticides) in successively higher trophic levels of a food chain or web
Trophic levels The hierarchical levels of the food chain through which energy flows from primary producers to primary consumers, secondary consumers and so on.
Decomposer An organism that breaks down wastes and dead organisms. Puts carbon back into the atmosphere
Cellular respiration Releasing energy from glucose and trapping it into ATP for use by the cell. Chemical Reaction C6H12O6 + 6O2 -----> 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP. Aerobic requires oxygen and produces the most ATP. Anaerobic does not use oxygen and produces a small amount of ATP.
Mitochondria An organelle in eukaryotic cells that serves as the site of aerobic cellular respiration (oxidative respiration); uses oxygen to break down organic molecules and synthesize ATP
Aerobic Chemical reactions that require the presence of oxygen
Anaerobic Describes a process that does not require oxygen.
10% rule the total energy produced at each trophic level is available to the next level. The amount of energy passed up to the levels of the food pyramid reduces as you go up due to metabolism and other changes in energy.
ribosome Cytoplasmic organelles at which proteins are synthesized.
Mitochondria An organelle in eukaryotic cells that serves as the site of cellular respiration; uses oxygen to break down organic molecules and synthesize ATP -- energy production for cell function
Golgi apparatus An organelle in eukaryotic cells consisting of stacks of flat membranous sacs that modify, store, and route products of the endoplasmic reticulum.
Lysosome An organelle in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells containing degradative enzymes enclosed in a membrane that breaks things down
RNA A type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil (U); usually single-stranded; functions in protein synthesis and as the genome of some viruses.
DNA (biochemistry) a long linear polymer found in the nucleus of a cell and formed from nucleotides and shaped like a double heli
Vacuole Cell organelle that stores materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates
Nucleus A part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction
Chloroplast An organelle found in plant cells and the cells of other eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms where photosynthesis occurs.
cilia Hairlike projections that extend from the plasma membrane and are used for locomotion
Diffusion Movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
Active Transport Energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane against a concentration difference
Passive Transport The movement of substances across a cell membrane without the use of energy by the cell
facilitated diffusion Movement of molecules across the plasma membrane of a cell, down its concentration gradient, through a protein channel
Osmosis Diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane
chlorophylls green pigment required for photosynthesis that traps the radiant energy of sunlight
photosynthesis 6CO2 + 6H2O + light --> C6H12O6 + 6O
Amino acids monomer of proteins
nucleic acids The biomolecule (or macromolecule) that is made up of nucleotides; DNA and RNA
enzymes Protein catalysts for chemical reactions in living things
eukaryotes All organisms in the kingdoms Protista, Plantae, Fungi, and Animalia are (what type of cell)
prokaryotes Bacteria and Archaea (what type of cell)
prokarytotes Unicellular organisms that lack a nucleus
aerobic respiration Respiration in which oxygen is consumed and glucose is broken down entirely; water, carbon dioxide, and large amounts of ATP are the final products
anaerobic A process that does not require any oxygen
mitosis A process of nuclear division in eukaryotic cells conventionally divided into five stages: prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.
meiosis A type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell, as in the production of gametes and plant spores.
haploid An organism or cell having only one complete set of chromosomes.
Abiotic factors Non-living factors in the enviroment- including temperature, water, sunlight, wind, rocks and soil
protist Kingdom composed of eukaryotes that are not classified as plants, animals, or fungi
heterotrophic Organisms that obtain their nutrients or food from consuming other organisms.
Genetic Drift Random change in allele frequencies that occurs in small populations
Red Blood Cells Blood cells that carry oxygen from the lungs to the body cells.
virus Any of a large group of infective agents that have a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core, are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, cause various important diseases in humans, animals, or plants. Not considered to be alive
phenotype the physical appearance of an organism
genotype the genetic makeup of an organism
Created by: jlhigh96