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anatomy 3

Hypothesis make a prediction test the prediction repeat the test or develop new ones analyze & report results or conclusions
Anatomy branch of biology, study of structure of organism and their parts
anatomy is related to embryology and comparative anatomy
Physiology the science of body functions; it is the study of mechanical, physical and biochemical properties of living organism.
Gross Anatomy study of macroscopic structure; surface anatomy: external features systemic anatomy: body structure by system regional anatomy; all systems within a region surgical anatomy: anatomical landmarks, important during surgery
physiology function of systemic anatomy systemic physiology; function of each body system immunology; study of body's defense mechanism pharmacology; study of drug action in the body
Radiology study of structure and function within the living body using xrays and other imaging techniques
Pathology study of structural and functional changes associated with disease
Microscopic anatomy study of microscopic structure
example of Microscopic anatomy cytology; study of cells Histology; study of tissues
cellular physiology study of cellular function
Developmental Anatomy study of structural changes from conception to birth
Embryology study of prenatal development
comparative anatomy study of the comparison of human anatomy with that of other animals
comparitive physiology Study of the comparison of human physiology wirh that of other animals.
Levels of organization of the human body atom, molecule, cell, tissue, organs and organ system
chemicals made up of atoms and molecules
Cell basic structural and functional units of an organism, there are nmany types, including nerve cell, blood cells, muscle cells and fat cells.
Tissue groups of cells & the surrounding environment that work together to produce a specific function.
Organ organs are structures that are made of two or more different types of tissues, they have specific functions & a defined shape.
example of an organ The heart is an example of an organ; it is made of muscle, connective, & nervous tissue. The tissues work in concert to move blood through the body
System consists of related organs that have a common function, there are eleven organ systems in the body:
four types of tissues in the body epithelial tissue, connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.
A Cell The smallest structural unit of an organism that is capable of independent functioning, consisting of cytoplasm, usually one nucleus, and various other organelles, all surrounded by a semipermeable cell membrane.
integumentary system what is this system components; , nails, hair, sweat glands, glands (sensation,(somatosensory perception) and Vitamin D synthesis; (responsible for protection, absorption, excretion, regulated body temperature., helps make vit D
Muscular system what is this system components; and muscle tissue; support and movement (skeletal system); protection of nerves and vessels (smooth and cardiac)
Nervous system what is this system components; , spinal cord, nerves, sense organs (eyes and ears); generates action potential (nerve impulses) to regulate body activities: detects changes in body internal and external environments; integration and regulation
skeletal system what is this system components; and joints: supports and protects body; provides surface area for muscle attachment, aid body movement, houses cells that produce blood cells, stores minerals and lipids (fat).
Endocrine system what is this system components; producing gland; pineal gland, hypothalmus, pituitary gland, thymus, thyroid glan, parathyroid gland, adrenal gland, pancreas, ovaries. regulates body activity by releasing hormone
cardiovascular system What system is blood, heart and blood vessels; responsible of transportation
lymphatic system and immunity what is this system components; vessels, spleen, lymph nodes and tonsils; cells that carry out immune responses; b cells, t cells and others. immunity
Respiratory system what is this system components; and air passageways such as pharynx (thoat), laryn (voice box), trachea (wind pipe) and bronchial tubes leading into and out of lungs. Transfers oxygen, regulated ph or acid base balance of the body fluids; temperature.
Digestive system what is this system components; , absorbs nutrients, eliminates solid waste; achieves physical and chemical breakdown of food.
urinary system ,what is this system components; stores and eliminates urine, PH regulator, maintains body's mineral balance, helps regulate production of red blood cells.
Reproductive system what is this system components; sperm, and eggs from the ovaries to form a new organism. also releases hormones that regulate reproduction ; associated organs transport and store gametes; mammary glands produce milk.
What Noninvasive diagnostic technique is used during an exam palpation, auscultation and percussion used to assess
When there us a drop in temperature vessels do what? vasodilation (heat is conserved) increase muscle activity(shivering) Behavior changes; putting on a sweater
percussion is done in assessing to know if the tissue is solid
What name is used to describe the study of the body that focuses on groups of organs that have a common function? Systemic anatomy
What is eponym? terms that are based on a person's name
criterion used to define life autopoieses
seven levels of organization chemical, organell, cellular, tissue, organ, system and organism
organells tiny organs mitochondria; the power house of cells that provide energy needed by the cell to carry on day to day functioning, growth and repair.
List the four major tissues epethelial, connective, muscle and nervous
Homeostasis a condition of equilibrium or balance in the body's internal environment. It is maintained by regulatory processes.
extracellular fluid the survival of our body cells is dependent on the precise regulation of the chemical composition of what surrounding fluid.
negative feedback bp; amount of anything in the blood
positive feedback labor production, blood clotting formation, ovulation reproductive
When homeostasis is disrupted disease, disorder, and even death may result Homeostatic imbalances
matter anything that has a mass and occupies space
atom smallest unit of matter; functional structure
matter exists in 3 forms solid, liquid, gas
element consist of one type of atom and cannot be broken down to another substance
26 elements 11 major elements 15 trace elements in the human body makes less than 2% of body weight
carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen makes up 96% of what constitutes the human body
protons positive charge located in the nucleus
neutrons ARE UNCHARGED; no change; located in the nucleus
electrons negative charge; located outside the nucleus; Exist in a orbiting cloud . They are electrically attracted to positively charged protons
atomic number the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
mass number the number of protons and neutrons in an atom
isotopes with the same # of protons but differing # of neutrons; differ in mass #'s used in medicine or treatment
oxidation in cells produces free radicals (unstable)
antioxidants neutralizee free radicals; vitacmins c and E; alpha carotene; a substance that gives up an electron to a free radical
radioisotopes in medicine pet scanning. diagnostic and treatment
ion an atom that has lost or gained and eletron
molecule 2 or more atoms sharing electrons
compound a substance that can be broken down into 2 or more different elements; all compounds are molecules
ionic bond in water are; weak, joined atoms have opposite chargesen
covalent bond in the molecule of water are: strong; joined atoms share electrons. in a polar convalent one end is slightly positive, the other slightly negative
chemical bond occurs when atoms are held together by forces of attraction
convalent bonds are single, double and triple bonds
hydrogen bonds weak attraction between polar molecules
energy the capacity to do work; potential, kinectic, chemical energy
types of chemical reactions synthesis, decomposition, exchange, reversible, oxifdation- reduction
inorganic compound usually lack carbon and are simple molecules water is the most importand and abundant inorganic compound in all living things.
organic compounds always contain H, C, N, O and always have convalent bonds; carbon and at least one hydrogen atom
hydrophilic water loving or chemically attracted to water
hydrophobic fearing water or chemically repelled by water
solvent easily dissoves ions and polar molecules
solute is the dissolve subtance
water forms spheres of hydration
In a hydrolysis reaction water is added to break bonds
In a dehydration synthesis reaction water is removed to make bonds
mixture a combination of elemens or compounds that are physically blended together but not bonded together
3 types of mixtures solution, colloid, suspension
acid substance that donates protons to other solutes or to water molecules when it dissolved in water
base a substance that accepts H+ when is dissolved in water
salt releases ion other than H+ and OH- key functions in cell
PH less than 7 increasingly accidic
PH more than 7 iicreasingly akaline
Buffers protect against shifts in PH; regulates by converting strong acids or bases into weak acids or bases
human blood; maintains PH 7.3-7.5
Acidosis blood PH below 7.0; leads to coma and death
ALKALOSIS blood PH increase to 7.8 leads to tetany and death
four clases of biological molecules are: carbohydrates, lipid, protein and nucleic acids
carbonic acid weak acid; major buffer
enzymes are proteins that help speed up chemical reaction
carbohydrates provide most of the energy needed for life
Polysaccharides Glycogen: storage form of glucose in animals (in liver and muscles) Starch: storage form of glucose in plants (high amounts in potatoes, rice, wheat, and corn) Cellulose: indigestible fiber of plants (aids in human digestion)
Fats lipids and Their Chemical Relatives Cells use lipids to store energy, as structural materials, and as signaling molecules
Fats Glycerol with one, two, or three fatty acids attached Triglycerides Most common fat in human body Richest source of energy
Fatty acids can be saturated or unsaturated
Triglycerides Triglycerides proved protection, insulation, and energy
Phospholipids are key building blocks of cell membranes.
Proteins gives structure to the body, regulate processes, provides protection, assist in muscle contraction, transport substances, and serve as enzymes
DNA & RNA DNA forms the genetic code in the nuclei of body cells and it regulates most of the cell’s activities RNA guides protein formation
Nucleotide Sugar Phosphate Nitrogenous base (cytosine, guanine, thymine, and adenine)
ATP (adenosine tri-phosphate) Three phosphate groups Links chemical reactions that release energy when phosphate bonds are broken; the principal energy-storing molecule in the body
Coenzyme Move hydrogen atoms and electrons Act as chemical messengers, such as cAMP the principal energy-storing
The cell can be subdivided into 3 parts Plasma (cell) membrane Cytoplasm Cytosol Organelles Nucleus Chromosomes Genes
Plasma membrane Outer covering of all cells; serves as the boundary of the cell maintaining its integrity. Control what goes in and out of the cell. contains proteins and carbohydrate chains that serve identifying markers and receptors
DNA Contains the genetic instructions
Region between the plasma membrane and the DNA Contains Cytosol
Nucleus houses genetic codes
Give an example of how cell structure relates to its function Cell have a particular size or form because they perform a certain activity
Cytoskeleton Structurally supports, gives shape to cell; moves cell and its parts
Plasma Membrane Controls the kinds and amounts of substances moving into and out of cell and contains the cytoplasm of the cell
Nucleus keeps DNA away from potentially damaging reaction in the: Cytoplasm
Ribosomes attached to rough ER and free in cytoplasm) Sites of protein synthesis
Lysosomes cells's digestive system
Golgi apparatus Synthethizes carbohydrates
Rough ER Modifies new polypeptide chains
Smooth ER Makes lipids, degrades fats, inactivates toxins
Two types of membrane proteins are Integral (also called transmembrane) proteins Peripheral proteins
roles of plasma membrane proteins Channels Transporters Receptors Recognition
EXTRACELLULAR FLUID Receptor protein , Recognition protein that identifies a cell as belonging to one’s own body. A transporter protein. It allows substances to cross the membrane through a channel in its interior. An enzyme, A pump protein. It moves ions across the membra
Oxygen, carbon dioxide, small nonpolar molecules, and some molecules of water cross a lipid bilayer freely. Glucose and other large, polar, water-soluble molecules, and ions (e.g., H+, Na+, K+, Cl–, Ca++) cannot cross on their own.
concentration gradient s the difference in the concentration of a chemical between one side of the plasma membrane and the other
electrical gradient is the difference in concentration of ions between one side of the plasma membrane and the other
electrochemical gradient concentration gradient and electrical gradient make up
Passive processes Simple diffusion Facilitated diffusion, osmosis. Active processes Active transport Vesicular transport Transport processes that move substances across the cell membrane are:
In diffusion, a dissolved molecule or ion moves down a concentration gradient
Diffusion is the net movement of like molecules or ions down a concentration gradient
Passive transport occurs in living organisms as substances move across a cell membrane
Transmembrane proteins help solutes that are too polar or too highly charged move through the lipid bilayer The processes involved are: Channel mediated facilitated diffusion Carrier mediated facilitated diffusion
Osmosis The net movement of a solvent through a selectively permeable membrane from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
hypertonic solution more solute molecules) in second compartment
hypotonic solution few solute molecules) in first compartment
Tonicity of a solution relates to how the solution influences the shape of body cells
Primary Active Transport Energy derived from ATP changes the shape of a transporter protein which pumps a substance across a plasma membrane against its concentration gradient.
Secondary Active Transport Energy stored (in a hydrogen or sodium concentration gradient) is used to drive other substances against their own concentration gradients
Exocytosis membrane-enclosed secretory vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane and release their contents into the extracellular fluid
Transcytosis a combination of endocytosis and exocytosis used to move substances from one side of a cell, across it, and out the other side
Cytosol is also known as the intracellular fluid, a portion of the cytoplasm
Microtubules Spatially organize interior of the cell Flagella and cilia arise from centrioles Create movement
Microfilaments Reinforce parts of the cell
Intermediate filaments Add strength Anchor filaments of actin and myosin
Vesicles Patches of the Golgi membrane bulge and break off
Peroxisomes Peroxisomes are structures that are similar in shape to lysosomes, but are smaller and contain enzymes that use oxygen to oxidize (break down) organic substances
Proteasomes are barrel-shaped structures that destroy unneeded, damaged, or faulty proteins by cutting long proteins into smaller peptides
Cell mitochondria convert the raw energy in organic compounds from food to ATP-a chemical form the cell can use
Cellular Metabolism Chemical reactions occur within the cells Energy supplied by ATP ATP created from carbohydrates, proteins, and fats we eat
Cellular respiration Formation of ATP from the breakdown of macromolecules Electron removed in the process Usually aerobic in complex organisms
The nucleolus is where cells make the parts of the ribosomes. The ribosomes leave the nucleus through pores.
Chromosome Double-stranded DNA molecule
Protein Synthesis: Transcription occurs in the nucleus and is the process by which genetic information encoded in DNA is copied onto a strand of RNA to direct protein synthesis
Protein Synthesis: Translation occurs in the nucleus and is the process of reading the mRNA nucleotide sequence to determine the amino acid sequence of the newly formed protein
Meiosis Involves reproduction
Mitosis Involves growth and maintenance of cells
Mitotic Phase: Prophase During prophase chromatin condenses into chromosomes
Mitotic Phase: Metaphase During metaphase centromeres of chromosomes line up at the metaphase plate
Mitotic Phase: Anaphase During anaphase centromeres of chromosomes split and sister chromatids move toward opposite poles of the cell
Mitotic Phase: Telophase During telophase the mitotic spindle dissolves, chromosomes regain their chromatin appearance, and a new nuclear membrane forms
Cytokinesis During cytokinesis a cleavage furrow forms and eventually the cytoplasm of the parent cell fully splits
3 possible destinies: Remain alive and functioning without dividing Grow and divide Die Control of Cell Destiny
Epidemiology the study and analysis of the patterns, causes, and effects of health and disease conditions in defined populations. It is the cornerstone of public health, and shapes policy decisions and evidence-based practice by identifying risk factors for disease an
Proteomics is the large-scale study of proteins
Metaplasia if the original cells are not robust enough to withstand their environment, so they transform into another cell type better suited to their environmen
Tumor When cell division does not occur in the 
usual pattern Also called neoplasms Benign tumors Malignant tumors
Disorders of Cell Structure Atrophy Hypertrophy Hyperplasia Metaplasia Dysplasia Neoplasia
Cell death Necrosis Apoptosis
Centrosome plays an important role during cell division,
gap juncitions are formed when membranes channels of adjacent plasma membranes adhere to each other.
Tight juction occurs in cell that are joined by collar of tghtly fused membranes
Distinguish between membranous and nonmembranous organelles membranouss organelles are the organelles that are speialized sacs or canals made of cell membrane. nonmembranous organelles are microscopic filaments or other nonmembranous materials.
Cytoplasm gel like structure
List the three main structural components of a cell Plasma membrane Cytoplasm including organell's the nucleus
free radical an unstable molecule that includes an atom with an electron vacancy in the outer shell
when there is a rise in temperature what occurs to blood vessel vasocontriction; sweating, changes in behavior; heavy breathing, sweating (heat is dissipated from the body) reduced muscle activity
Created by: Kittyluv413