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Peds Ch 9

Test 1

proportional changes Rapid growth in 1st 6 months (5 to 7 oz weekly) doubling birth weight by 6m. Weight has tripled by 1yo, average weight of 21.5lbs.
maturation of systems *RR slows, abdominal *HR slows and is often sinus arrhythmia (increases with inspiration, decreased with expiration), BP changes. Digestive processes are immature at birth.
amylase needed to digest carbs, absent until 4-6 months.
lipase infants do not achieve adult levels of fat absorption until 4-5 months.
trypsin is secreted in sufficient quantities to catabolize protein into polypeptides and some amino acids.
infant liver is most immature of all GI organs. can conjugate bilirubin and secrete bile w/i 2 weeks. Immature for 1st year: glucoeogenesis, formation of plasma protein and ketones, vitamin storage.
erikson's phase 1 trust vs. mistrust. infants trust that their feeding, comfort, stimulation, and caring needs will be met. mistrust can result from too much or too little frustration. if parents always meet needs before infant signals readiness, they cannot test environ.
cognition ability to know. theory of piaget
sensorimotor phase birth to 24 months. 1st: separation between self and other objects. 2nd: object permanence (9-10m), objects that leave still exist. 3rd: ability to use symbols, mental representation.
primary circular reactions the beginning of the replacement of reflexive behavior with voluntary acts
infants laugh aloud at... 4 months old
insecure attachment develops when infants do not feel they can trust the world in which they live. may exist in homes where there is domestic violence and maternal postnatal depression.
2 components of cognitive development required for attachment 1. the ability to discriminate the mother from other individuals 2. the achievement of object permanence.
what age do infants show distinct preference for mother? 6 months
separation-individuation between 4 -8 months. begin to be aware that they are separate beings from their mother.
fear of stangers 6 -8 months old, related to their ability to discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar
2 month old vocalize single vowel sounds, ah, eh, and uh.
3 to 4 month old vocalize n, k, g, p, and b are added and infants coo, gurgle, and laugh.
6 month old vocalize imitate sounds. add t,d, and w. combine syllables "dada", but they do not ascribe meaning to the word until 10-11 months
9 to 10 month old vocalize comprehend meaning of no and obey simple commands.
12 month old vocalize can say 3 to 5 words with meaning and may understand as many as 100 words.
nurse's knowledge of child's temperament allows them to... 1. provide parents with background info that will help them see their child in a better perspective 2. offer a more organized picture of behavior and reveal distortions in behavior. 3. guild parent into appropriate childrearing techniques.
best approach of a stranger (nurse) talk softly *meet the child at eye level *maintain a safe distance from infant *avoid sudden and intrusive gestures such as holding out the arms and smiling broadly
quick assessment of teeth during first 2 years Age of the child in months - 6 = number of teeth.
diet 1st 6 months human milk. Fluoride supplementation in breast fed children is not required for 1st 6 months. May only be necessary if mother's water does not contain fluoride.
diet 2nd 6 months human milk or formula should still be primary source of nutrition. can begin to introduce solid food, beginning with infant cereal. new foods added 1 at a time. 4-6oz of fruit juice may be given. 8-9m junior finger foods and 1yo well cooked table food.
sleep amounts for infants 2 month: 15 hours. 6-12 month: 13 hours.
Common infant injuries (SAFEPAD) *Suffocation *Asphyxia--Animal bites *Falls *Electrical Burns *Poisoning *Automobile safety *Drowning
Rear-facing seats recommended that all infants and toddlers ride rear-facing until they reach 2 years old or until they surpass height and weight recommendations
Created by: tkulwicki