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Ms. Long 6: Terms

TermDefinition
inner core a ball of hot, solid metals
outer core a layer of liquid metals that surrounds the inner core
mantle the Earth's thickest layer; made up of hot rock
crust a thin layer of cool rock that surrounds Earth
lithosphere Combination of the Earth's crust and the very top of the mantle - it is the most rigid of all the layers
asthenosphere a layer of hotter, softer rock in the upper mantle that flows
tectonic plates lithosphere that is broken
continental drift Wegner's theory that Earth's continents were once joined in a single landmass and gradually moved apart
Pangaea Wegner's name for the supercontinent
mid-ocean ridge underwater mountain ranges
convection energy transfer by the movement of a material
convection currents sinking and rising motion that occurs through the transfer of heat energy
theory of plate tectonics theory that states that Earth's lithosphere is made up of huge plates that move over the surface of the Earth
divergent boundary occurs where plates move/pull apart
convergent boundary convergent boundary
transform boundary occurs where plates scrape/slide by one another
rift valley happens where ridges continue to widen and create a gap and molten material rises to build new crust
magnetic reversal where the North and South Poles switch position
hot spots where heated rock rises in plumes or thin columns from the mantle
subduction one plate sinks beneath another
continental-continental collision 2 continental plates carrying continental crust push together forming mountains
oceanic-oceanic subduction 2 oceanic plates come together as one sinks beneath the other due to density (forms ocean trenches and island arcs)
oceanic-continental subduction when oceanic crust sinks under continental crust (forms deep ocean trenches and coastal mountains)
hardness the resistance to being scratched
cleavage tendency of a mineral to break along flat surfaces
fracture tendency of a mineral to break into irregular pieces
luster the way light reflects from the surface
color the appearance of the rock when viewed with your eyes
density the amount of mass in a given volume
streak the powder left behind when the mineral is rubbed against a surface
water displacement the method used to find the volume of an irregular shaped object
rock cycle how rocks change from one form to another
igneous forms when molten rock cools and becomes solid
sedimentary forms when pieces of older rock combine with other rocks
metamorphic formed from heat or pressure
weathering the breaking down of rocks
mechanical weathering breaking down of rocks through pressure
chemical weathering breaking down of rocks by means of changing the composition
abrasion breaking of rocks by means of friction
deposition the setting down of sediment
humus he top layer of soil that contains many nutrients
soil profile the soil horizons in a specific location; a cross section of soil layers that displays all soil horizons
soil horizon a soil layer with physical and chemical properties that differ from those layers above and below it
sediment tiny pieces of broken rock
erosion the movement of rock through wind and water
matter any substance that has mass and takes up space
atom the smallest particle of an element that has the same chemical properties of its element
element a substance that can not be broken down into a simpler substance;an element consists of only one type of of atom`
density refers to how tightly packed together the molecules of a substance are; the amount of mass in a given volume
melting point the temperature at which a substance will go through a phase change from a solid to a liquid
boiling point the temperature at which a substance will go from a liquid to a gas
sublimation the process of changing from a solid straight into a liquid without going through the liquid phase
mass the amount of matter contained inside of an object
volume the amount of space taken up by an object, substance, or inside of a container
solubility the ability of a substance to dissolve
solute the substance that is being dissolved
solvent a solid, liquid, or gas that can dissolve another solid, liquid, or gas
saturation the point where a substance is holding as much solute as it possibly can
phase change transformations of a substance from one state of matter to another by heating or cooling
subscript in a chemical formula it indicates how many of that element are found in the molecule
Conduction The transfer of thermal energy through touching
convection the transfer of thermal energy through liquids and gases
radiation the transfer of heat energy through waves
transfer to move from one location to the next
vibration a periodic motion of the particles of an elastic body or medium in alternately opposite directions from the position of equilibrium when that equilibrium has been disturbed
medium a substance regarded as the means of transmission
rarefaction a state or region of minimum pressure in a medium traversed by compressional waves (such as sound waves)
infrared situated outside the visible spectrum at its red end —used of radiation having a wavelength between about 700 nanometers and 1 millimeter
frequency the number of times that a periodic function repeats the same sequence of values during a unit variation of the independent variable
longitudinal wave particles of the medium vibrate in the direction of the line of advance of the wave
compression a longitudinal wave (such as a sound wave) propagated by the elastic compression of the medium
transparent having the property of transmitting light without appreciable scattering so that bodies lying beyond are seen clearly
ultraviolet situated beyond the visible spectrum at its violet end —used of radiation having a wavelength shorter than wavelengths of visible light and longer than those of X-rays
amplitude the extent of a vibratory movement (as of a pendulum) measured from the mean position to an extreme
transverse waves a wave in which the vibrating element moves in a direction perpendicular to the direction of advance of the wave
electromagnetic magnetism developed by a current of electricity
translucent transmitting and diffusing light so that objects beyond cannot be seen clearly
equilibrium a state of adjustment between opposing or divergent influences or elements (balanced)
pitch the property of a sound and especially a musical tone that is determined by the frequency of the waves producing it :highness or lowness of sound
trough a long, low area between waves
disturbance a local variation from the average or normal conditions
opaque blocking the passage of radiant energy and especially light
conductors material or object that allows electricity or heat to move through it
loudness the attribute of a sound that determines the magnitude of the auditory sensation produced and that primarily depends on the amplitude of the sound wave involved
crest the highest part or point of the wave
refraction the action of distorting an image by viewing through a medium;
insulators a material that is a poor conductor (as of electricity or heat)
seasons each of the four divisions of the year (spring, summer, autumn, and winter) marked by particular weather patterns and daylight hours, resulting from the earth's changing position with regard to the sun.
hemisphere a half of the earth, usually as divided into northern and southern halves by the equator, or into western and eastern halves by an imaginary line passing through the poles.
Hubble Telescope space telescope that was launched into low Earth orbit in 1990 and remains in operation.
tides rise and fall of sea levels caused by the combined effects of the gravitational forces exerted by the Moon and the Sun and the rotation of Earth.
equator an imaginary line drawn around the earth equally distant from both poles, dividing the earth into northern and southern hemispheres and constituting the parallel of latitude 0°
Chandra x-ray Observatory Flagship-class space observatory launched on STS-93 by NASA on July 23, 1999
Fermi-Gamma-Ray Telescope space observatory being used to perform gamma-ray astronomy observations from low Earth orbit.
eclipse an astronomical event that occurs when an astronomical object is temporarily obscured, either by passing into the shadow of another body or by having another body pass between it and the viewer.
phases a distinct period or stage in a process of change or forming part of something's development
rotation the action of rotating around an axis or center.( spin)
gravitational force the force of attraction between all masses in the universe; especially the attraction of the earth's mass for bodies near its surface
Voyager Probes The Voyager program is an American scientific program that employs two robotic probes, Voyager 1 and Voyager 2, to study the outer Solar System to reveal unknown details about each of the giant planets and their moons.
revolution the movement of one object around a center or another object
International Space Station a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit
tilt the angle that the earth is positioned
solar eclipse Moon passes between the Sun and Earth and casts a shadow on Earth
lunar eclipse Earth passes between the Sun and the Moon. The Moon is in Earth's shadow
solstice the longest and shortest days of the year
equinox equal day and night
crescent moon is less than half lit
full moon Side of the Moon facing Earth is fully lit.
gibbous Moon is more than half lit.
new moon Side of the Moon facing Earth is completely dark.
umbra the area on the earth or moon experiencing the total phase of an eclipse.
penumbra the shadow cast by the earth or moon over an area experiencing a partial eclipse
ebb the movement of the tide out to sea
petals ach of the segments of the corolla of a flower, which are modified leaves and are typically colored
photosynthesis the process by which green plants use sunlight to synthesize foods from carbon dioxide and water
dormancy when a plant is alive but not actively growing
phloem the vascular tissue in plants that conducts sugars and other metabolic products downward from the leaves
xylem the vascular tissue in plants that conducts water and dissolved nutrients upward from the root and also helps to form the woody element in the stem
sepals the leaves that enclose the flower bud
cellular respiration the production of energy from the intake of oxygen and the release of carbon dioxide
tropism the turning of all or part of an organism in a particular direction in response to an external stimulus
transpiration process by which moisture is carried through plants from roots to small pores on the underside of leaves, where it changes to vapor and is released to the atmosphere
stamens the male fertilizing organ of a flower, typically consisting of a pollen-containing anther and a filament.
cuticle a protective and waxy or hard layer covering the epidermis of a plant
gravitropism the movement or growth of a plant in response to gravity
anther the part of a stamen that contains the pollen
stomata any of the pores in the epidermis of the leaf or stem of a plant, forming a slit of variable width that allows movement of gases in and out
hydrotrophism growth or movement response of a cell or an organism to moisture or water
pistil the female organs of a flower, comprising the stigma, style, and ovary
glucose made in photosynthesis is transported around the plant as soluble sugars which are used in respiration to release energy for use by the plant's cells
fertilization Coming together of egg cell and sperm cell; once pollination happens, ovule closes; then sperm cell fertilizes an egg cell in ovule; fertilized egg then develops into embryo
pollination the transfer of pollen to a stigma, ovule, flower, or plant to allow fertilization
ovary part of the pistil which holds the ovule(s) and is located above or below or at the point of connection with the base of the petals and sepals
ovules the part of the ovary of seed plants that contains the female germ cell and after fertilization becomes the seed
filament a stalk-like structure that attaches to the base of the flower and supports the anther, which is the structure that produces pollen
stigma The part of the pistil where pollen germinates
style a long, slender stalk that connects the stigma and the ovary
germinate sprouting of a seedling from a seed
perfect flowers has both the male and the female reproductive parts
imperfect flowers has only one sexual reproductive organ
phototropism plants that grow towards the sun
chlorophyll causes plants to be green
producers green plants that make their own food through photosynthesis
biome a large naturally occurring community of flora and fauna occupying a major habitat
energy pyramid a graphical model of energy flow in a community
consumers heterotrophic organism that feeds on other organisms in a food chain
freshwater naturally occurring water on Earth's surface in ice sheets, ice caps, glaciers, icebergs, bogs, ponds, lakes, rivers and streams, and underground as groundwater.
decomposers an organism, especially a soil bacterium, fungus, or invertebrate, that breaks down organic material
biotic all the living things in an ecosystem
marine pertaining to the sea
food chain a hierarchical series of organisms each dependent on the next as a source of food
abiotic all the nonliving things in an ecosystem such as water, air, and sunlight
desert arid land with usually sparse vegetation; having a very warm climate and receiving less than 25 centimeters (10 inches) of rainfall annually
limiting factors environmental conditions that limit the growth, abundance, or distribution of an organism or a population of organisms in an ecosystem
tundra refers only to the areas where the subsoil is permafrost, or permanently frozen soil
Created by: nrdamm06