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7th Grade Science

Science Final Exam Vocabulary

TermDefinition
allele one of two or more alternate forms of a gene that arises by mutation; found at the same place on the chromosome
autotroph an organism that produces its own food such as plants
base On a microscope, the bottom. When carrying the microscope, hold the arm and the base.
cell the smallest structural and functional unit of an organism
cell wall rigid layer or barrier all around a cell
chloroplast a part of a plant cell in which photosynthesis take place
cloning make an identical copy of something.
cytoplasm material inside a cell excluding the nucleus
density how solid or compact a substance is
Periodic table Organized chart for all elements
DNA carrier of gene information on chromosomes
dominant characteristics that are inherited from a parent even if only one parent has the allele, the strong one
genotype the genetic make up of an organism
genus part of the system for sorting living things--genus comes after species and below family
heterotroph a organism that consumes or eat their food
heterozygous an organism with two different alleles of a particular gene--might have differing offspring
homozygous an organism having two identical alleles of a particular gene-
hybrid an organism with a mixture of alleles for a gene
mass the quantity of matter something contains
mitrochondria a rod-shaped structure that produces energy for the cell; mighty mitochondria
nucleus a cell structure that contains genetic material; the brains of the cell
objective lenses lenses in a microscope which allow magnification of the object
pedigree certain genes that the offspring inherits from the parent
phenotype the physical trait the gene actually produces
punnett square diagram that shows how the genes of two "parents" might possibly combine.
purebred certain genes that the offspring inherits from the parent; both phenotypes are the same
recessive a gene which has a trait that shows when both parents are recessive.
responding or dependent variable a variable in an experiment which is measured or studied.
revolving nosepiece the part of the microscope used to change objective (the magnification)
ribosomes A small grain-like structure in the cytoplasm were cells are made
species a group of living organisms consisting of similar individuals capable of exchanging genes or interbreeding.
unicellular one cell, some organisms are unicellular--they consist of one cell.
vacuole water sacs in a cell
volume A measure of the amount of space or substance an object takes up
water dispalcement Technique used to find the volume of an irregularly shaped object
multicellular more than one cell
membrane A thin line of protection which decides what goes in and out of the cell
manipulated or independent variable a variable in an experiment which is intentionally changed by a variable in an experiment which is intentionally changed by
eyepiece The part of the microscope where you put your eye
dichotomous key a tool used to identify an organism. Helps to sort plants and animals into groups with similar characteristics
diaphragm A large dome shaped muscle that plays an important role in breathing
control the object that you compare everything else to
coarse adjustment knob On a microscope: the knob that makes large adjustments to the focus
arm On a microscope: the shaft that attaches the eyepiece body tube revolving nosepiece and objectives to the base
Objective On a microscope: the high medium and low objectives can be changed depending on how small or large the object is.
electrons atomic particles that produce a negative charge
neutrons atomic particles that produce a neutral charge
symbiosis a relationship with benefits for two living organisms
biome a large naturally occurring community of flora and fauna occupying a major habitat, e.g., forest or tundra.
length a measure of how long an object is end-to-end
temperature a measure of heat energy an object or substance has
The scientific method six steps to recognize and try to solve a problem
Qualitative Observations observations using your five senses--color, smell, sounds, feel, taste
Quantitative Observations observations about something recorded in numbers such as weight, length, numbers of times something happens
Inferences A possible explanation based on observations and prior knowledge
Hypothesis an idea or suggested explanation for an observation
Experimental Design how the experiment is designed to test a hypothesis
asexual reproduction reproduction where one parent produces offspring that are genetically identical
sexual reproduction two parent organisms combine genetic material; offspring are genetically different from parents
growth process by which an organism grows bigger
development process by which an organism become more complex
homeostasis ability of an organism to maintain a stable internal environment
stimulus a change in the environment that makes an organism react
response an organism's reaction to a stimulus
adaptation an organism changes to better survive its enviornment
classification grouping things with similar characteristics
taxonomy studying how things are classified
kingdoms In a taxonomy a very general group
cell wall Found only in plant cells; a hard layer surrounding the cell membrane of plants
chlorplast in plants; captures sun's energy to produce food through photosynthesis
mitosis cell division in which one parent cell produces two identical daughter cells
meiosis cell division in which one parent cell produce four daughter cells
mutation a mistake in a genetic code which can occur during DNA replication
cancer caused by a mutation that can lead to uncontrollable division and growth in cells
semi-permeable certain substances can pass through the cell membrane
passive transport movement of molecules into and out of a semi-permeable cell
diffusion molecule move from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration
osmosis the diffusion of water through a cell membrane
traits a characteristic that an organism can pass on to its offspring
biotic factors all living things in an ecosystem
abiotic factors the nonliving things in an ecosystem
population all the members of one species that live in a specific area
community all the different populations that live in an area
habitat the specific place an organism lives
energy source the source of all energy inmost food webs is the sun
producer an organism that makes its own food (autotroph)
Consumer an organism that gets energy from eating other organisms (heterotroph)
decomposer an organism that breaks down wastes and dead organisms
matter anything that has mass and takes up space
solid a state of matter that has a definite shape and definite volume
liquid a state of matter that has NO definite shape, but has a definite volume; it cannot be compressed
gas a state of matter with no definite shape or volume; it can flow and be compressed
physical change a change in a substance that does not alter its identity
chemical change a change in which one or more substances combine or break apart to form new substances
atom building block of all matter
element types of atoms that cannot be broken down into other substances
compound made of two or more elements
molecule a combination of two or more atoms
atomic number the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom; unique to each element
atomic mass protons and neutrons which are located in the nucleus of an atom
period on the periodic table; a horizontal row of elements; they DO NOT have similar properties
Group (Family) On the periodic table; elements in the same column; have similar properties
metals most elements are metals; almost all are solid at room temperature (except Mercury)
metalloids 7 elements found at the boundary of metals and nonmetals
Noble Gases elements with their outer shells filled and DO NOT bond with other atoms
Created by: charriez