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Empiricism Empirical evidence is something that can be observed and measured and is usually quantitative.
Rationalism Scientific explanations that we come up with are the result of reasoning and logic. Logic is learned.
Scepticism Science is institutionalised scepticism. Different from cynicism (which looks to undo arguments and it negative) and denialism or contraryism (not open to new data or ideas).
Inductive reasoning Based on observations of the world and can be used to form universal laws; it proceeds from the particular to the general.
Deductive reasoning Based on universal laws and can be used to explain individual observations; it proceeds from the general to the particular.
Scientific method 1. Ask a question 2. Do background research 3. Construct a hypothesis 4. Test your hypothesis by doing an experiment 5. Analyse your data and draw a conclusion 6. Report your results (was your hypothesis correct?)
Ockham (or Occam) razor ‘Don’t make more assumptions than the minimum needed’ The simplest explanation is most likely to be correct. The complex answer may be correct but always explore the simpler explanations first.
Cognitive dissonance Holding two or more contradictory beliefs, ideas, or values at the same time OR being confronted by new information that conflicts with existing beliefs, ideas, or values.
Peer review To check work by peers when it is to be published in order to weed out bad or erroneous work. Peer review is important as it acts as a filter, while improving the quality of the research.
Monologue Refers to the scientists conveying knowledge to the receiver (scientist as an expert)
Dialogue Refers to scientists in conversation, listening and talking (scientist as an expert).
What are the 5 sections of the 5-box talk? Introduction (attention grabbing; statement/question) moving through major points 1, 2 and 3 before finishing with the conclusion (summary of talk; reiterate points; return to broad themes).
Correspondence theory of truth The truth/falsity of a statement is determined only by how it relates to the world and whether it accurately describes that world. Correspondence theories claim that true beliefs and statements correspond to the actual state of affairs.
Motto of the Royal Society 'Nullius in verba' (take nobody's word for it)
FiLCHeRS Fi (Falsifiable) it must be possible to produce evidence (quantitative data) that would prove a claim false.
FiLCHeRS L (Logical) Any argument offered as evidence in support of a given claim must be valid and sound.
FiLCHeRS C (Comprehensive) The evidence offered in support of a given claim must be exhaustive, meaning all evidence must be analysed.
FiLCHeRS He (Honest) Any evidence offered in support or a given claim must be evaluated without deception.
FiLCHeRS R (Replicable) Any evidence in support of a given claim should not be able to be explained as ‘coincidental’; Any evidence in support of a given claim has to be able to be repeated.
FiLCHeRS S (Sufficiency) Any evidence offered in support of a claim must be adequate to establish the truth of that claim
False dichotomy: utility vs validity An individual utilising a product or process and surmises that it does good for them (no evidence) (utility). A scientist can falsify that claim or process rending it not valid (validity).
Universalism science is to be judged on the quality of the science (does not depend on who did the work, where it was done or where it was published
Replication/Reproducibility Science is self-correcting process; Replication of important findings by multiple independent investigators is fundamental to the accumulation of scientific evidence.
Deontological Rules-based ethics (religious/vegan/vegetarian); stemming from the Deon (greek) meaning duty. The moral obligation is what matters not the actual consequences of the action.
Utilitarian Maximises utility; ‘the ends justify the means’; Experimenting on animals is ok if it benefits humans.
Created by: alex.iwanuch