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Chemistry

TermDefinition
Alleles The different forms of a gene.
Heredity The passing of traits from parents to offspring.
Trait A characteristic that an organism can pass to offspring through genes.
Recessive An allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present.
Dominant An allele whose trait always shows up in the organism when it is present.
Phenotype An organism's physical appearance or visible traits.
Genotype An organism's genetic makeup or allele combinations.
Homozygous when both alleles are the same
Heterozygous When the pair of alleles are different
Mutation a change or alteration in form or qualities
Replication the action of copying or reproducing something.
Nucleotide a compound consisting of a nucleoside linked to a phosphate group. Nucleotides form the basic structural unit of nucleic acids such as DNA.
Transcription is the first step in gene expression. It involves copying a gene's DNA sequence to make an RNA molecule.
Translation In this stage, the mRNA is "decoded" to build a protein (or a chunk/subunit of a protein) that contains a specific series of amino acids.
Karyotyping is the number and appearance of chromosomes in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell.
Codon a triplet of adjacent nucleotides in the messenger RNA chain that codes for a specific amino acid in the synthesis of a protein molecule.
Anticodon a sequence of three nucleotides forming a unit of genetic code in a transfer RNA molecule, corresponding to a complementary codon in messenger RNA.
Recombinant DNA DNA that has been formed artificially by combining constituents from different organisms.
Restriction enzyme an enzyme produced chiefly by certain bacteria, having the property of cleaving DNA molecules at or near a specific sequence of bases.
Genetic engineering the deliberate modification of the characteristics of an organism by manipulating its genetic material.
Created by: 100973