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# ScienceTest Exam

### 7th grade Final Test Exam

Why do all objects fall to the Earth at a rate of (9.8m/s^2)? Large mass takes longer to accelerate due to it's large mass "very lazy", small mass very quick to accelerate due to its small mass "less lazy"
How does air resistance affect the rate at which objects fall to the Earth? Air resistance causes the speed of a falling object to decrease
What is orbital motion? The combination of forward motion, constant speed and gravity.
What is Newton's First Law of Motion? When an object is at rest, it will stay at rest. When an object is in motion it stays in motion unless acted on by an outside force.
What is Newton's Second Law of Motion? The acceleration of an object depends on the mass of the object and the force applied.
What are the 2 factors that determine speed? Distance and time
What is the difference between speed and velocity? Speed is the distance an object moved object in the time in which the motion took place whereas, velocity is the speed of an object in a certain direction.
Forces are considered balanced when the net force is equal to which number? 0
What is friction? A force that opposes motion between 2 surfaces that are moving
What is the Law of universal gravitation? All objects attract each other because all objects have mass
What is mechanical advantage? The number of times the machine multiplies the force
Why are machines not 100% efficient? Some energy is always converted to Thermal energy due to friction
What information do you need to calculate how much work an activity is? Force and Distance
What is the formula for calculating work? W=F(d)
F(d)=f(D), what does this mean and how can you use it to explain how machines make work easier. This shows a machine that allows you to do your input work over a smaller distance, but you have to exert a larger force. This machine made work easier by changing this into a smaller force over a big distance
What is a compound machine? A machine made up of two or more machines
What is elastic potential energy? The energy that is stored in an object when it is stretched or twisted
What is thermal energy? All of the kinetic energy due to the random motion of the particles that make up an object. (HEAT)
When is the potential energy the greatest on a roller coaster? At the top of the first hill
What is kinetic energy? Energy of motion
What is mechanical energy? The total energy of motion and position of an object
What is a cell? Smallest unit that can perform all the processes necessary for life
What is a cell membrane? A barrier that encloses and protects the cell
What is the cell theory? 1. All living organisms are made of cells 2. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in all organisms 3. All cells come from previously existing cells
What does the mitochondria do? Store and make energy
What is a cytoplasm? The fluid inside of a cell
What does the nucleus do? Controls and manages all cell activities
What is the purpose of muscles? To help the body move
What are the three types of muscles and where are they found in the body? Smooth muscles are found in the digestive tract and on the walls of blood vessels. Cardiac muscles are found only in the heart. Skeletal muscles are attached to bones.
What are the 4 functions of bones? Protection, movement, blood cell formation and storage
What are tendons? Strands of connective tissue that connect your bones to your skeletal muscles
What is bone marrow? The material inside bones that make blood cells
What is the difference among the three main types of joints? They all move differently
What systems work together during the process of respiration?
What are the main parts of the cardiovascular system? heart, arteries, capillaries, blood and veins
What is the function of the heart? To pump blood
What are the parts of the respiratory system? nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchus, lung and diaphragm
What happens during the process of inhalation? The diaphragm contracts
In what organ does oxygen pass into the body? Lung
What are the names of the upper/lower chambers of the heart? Upper chambers are called Atria. The lower are called Ventricle
What are capillaries? What are some features that they have to help with the exchange of gases? Capillaries are tiny blood vessels that allow an exchange between blood and cells in other tissues, they have very thin walls
What is the functions of the esophagus? Squeezes food down to the stomach
What are the two types of digestion? Mechanical and digestion
Where do the broken down nutrients go? the bloodstream
What does the liver store/process? nutrients
What does the gall bladder store? bile
What is the common name for the pharynx? throat
What is Newton's Third Law of Motion For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. All forces act in pairs.
What is a machine? A device that makes work easier by changing the size or direction of the force
Created by: ca28776

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