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Biology EOC Review

vocab and ideas for 9th grade Bio EOC exam

WordDefinition
Recessive represented by a small letter in the genotype (aa) and is only seen if both alleles are small
Dominant represented by the big letter in the genotype (A) and is seen no matter what the other allele is
Heterozygous alleles in a genotype are different (Aa)
Homozygous alleles in a genotype are the same (aa) or (AA)
Dihybrid 2 trait cross
Viral Glycoprotein protein on the outside of a virus that attaches it to the cell
Cilia move things on the outside of the cell
Bacteriophage virus that attacks bacteria, no organelles or nucleus, only protein with DNA
Bacteria prokaryote with no organelles or nucleus
Eukaryote complex cell that has a nucleus and organelles
Digestive System brings food and nutrients into the body
Immune System Protects the body from pathogens and helps the body to get healthy when it is sick
Nervous System senses things in and around the body and communicates with the other systems through electrical impulses
Endocrine System creates hormones that are used as chemical signals for the body and other chemicals that assist in the running of the body
Muscular System Use lots of energy to contract and release to move the body or move other things inside the body
Circulatory System absorbs nutrients and materials from other systems (like food and oxygen) then transport it to where it needs to be in the body
Reproductive System makes babies
Stomata on the underside of a leaf and allows gas exchange for photosynthesis. can close to stop water loss
Nastic Response responding to touch (like a venus fly trap getting nutrients)
Geotropism response of the plant shoot growing against gravity and roots growing with gravity
Hydrotropism plant response where the roots attempt to find water
Phototropism plant response to light
Primary Succession no soil, very little diversity, pioneer species are moss and lichen
Secondary Succession soil, deeper soil allows for larger plants, like in forests with lots of diversity
Commensalism two species living together, one benefits and the other is not affected
Parasitism two species living together, one benefits and the other is hurt or killed
Mutualism two species living together, both benefit
Predator Consumer that hunts another organism
Prey organism that is hunted to be eaten
Competition organisms fighting for the same resources
Producer organisms that can make their own food through photo/chemosynthesis
Primary Consumer in a food chain it has arrow pointing from a producer and to a secondary consumer
Secondary Consumer in a food chain it has an arrow point from a primary consumer and to a tertiary consumer
Tertiary Consumer in a food chain it has an arrow point from a secondary consumer and to a quaternary consumer
Detritivore organism that eats dead and decaying matter and returns nutrients to the soil
Trophic Pyramid bottom level has more energy and top has less energy, take a "0" off the number each level it goes up
Food web Shows the energy relationships in an ecosystem, more arrows means it affects more species
Mutation change in the DNA that can lead to diversity
Mammal Adaptations Changes, like delayed implantation so babies are born in spring, live birth, breathing air, to help organisms survive
Amphibian Adaptations Changes, like smooth moist skin they can breathe through and have an internal skeletal system, to help organisms survive
Reptile Adaptations Changes, like scales or shells, to help organisms survive
Insect Adaptations Changes, like bright warning colors and external skeletons , to help organisms survive
Disease Transmission can easily spread by humans traveling or through the air and weak immune systems make it harder to stay healthy
Viruses can hide their DNA like in the lysogenic cycle or can replicate very quickly, like the lytic cycle
Plant hormones can cause movement or growth in plants
Stamen made of the anther and filament, male part of the flower that makes the male sex cells
Petal pretty part of the plant that attracts pollinators
Carpel / pistil made of the stigma, style, and ovary, female part of the plant, helps to develop an embryo
Natural Selection most fit survive and their traits are passed on to offspring in genes
Gene Flow genes move over from a different population
Gradualism theory that evolution occurs slowly over a period of time, starting with one species and ending up with more
Punctuated Equilibrium theory that evolution occurs in quick spurts followed by long periods of no change
Mitochondria Organelle that performs the process of cell respiration to provide the cell with energy
Chloroplast Green organelle in the leaf of the plant that performs the process of photosynthesis to make food
Carbohydrate biomolecule that is used for quick energy and can be a product of photosynthesis
Lipid biomolecule that can be used to store energy and enclose cells
protein biomolecule that can be used to speed up reactions and form many parts of the body
Nucleic Acid biomolecule that makes up genetic material
Nucleotide Base part of DNA that is sequenced for protein synthesis
Mitosis division of the nucleus, follows interphase, made up of prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
Meiosis process that produces gametes, start with 1 full cell, end with 4 half cells for reproduction
Created by: MrsDasch