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Biology questions


What are the three types of RNA and what are their functions? mRNA: messenger RNA; brings info from nucleus to ribosome and gets translated rRNA: ribosomal RNA; in ribosome tRNA: transfer RNA; transports amino acids to ribosome
What is selective breeding? selecting what you want to breed
What is hybridization? taking 2 dissimilar species and breeding them
What is inbreeding? breeding 2 of the same species
Which type of selective breeding is likely to lead to genetic defects? inbreeding
What are the ultimate source of genetic variability Mutations
What happens after "cutting DNA with restriction enzymes the DNA fragments can be separated by size using gel electrophoresis
Why is DNA attracted to the positive end of the gel during electrophoresis? because it is negatively charges
What kind of fragments move farther/faster down the gel during gel electrophoresis? smaller fragments
Why is it useful for researchers to know the DNA sequence of an organism? So we can manipulate them
What is genetic modification Making changes in an organisms DNA
What does RNA stand for ribosome-nucleic acid
What is a histone a protein that DNA wraps around
What is the difference between purines and pyrimidines A purine is a double ringed nitrogenous base. A pyrimidine is a single ringed nitrogenous base
What is Helicase? an enzyme that unwinds ("unzips") the two strands of DNA
What is DNA polymerase? an enzyme that attaches short stretches of free nucleotides to the original strands and also proofreads the new DNA strand
What is DNA Ligase an enzyme that fills in the "gaps" between the new stretches of nucleotides
What sugar does RNA contain? Ribose
What is transcription? the process that transforms DNA into RNA
How many strands of DNA are transcribed one
What is translation the process in which RNA is transformed into proteins
Where does translation occur rib some/cytoplasm of the cell
What is the structure of a phosphate group deoxyribose 5-carbon sugar nitrogenous base
What is recombinant DNA? DNA from 2 different sources that were combined.
How are the genes of clones alike they are identical copies of the organism it came from
What was the first mammal to be cloned? A sheep names Dolly
How did the Moth Lab Simulation explain Natural Selection by blending into the white trees the white moths survived+the dark moths died because they were easier to identify. then during the industrial revolution, the trees turned dark from the ash from factories+ the dark moths survivde+white moths died
What is natural selection? -those who have the ability to survive and reproduce will survive and reproduce simple: survival of the fittest
Why do we need to name and classify organisms? to group the in logical ways+so we know what we are looking at -common names are confusing+change from place to place
Do we use small or large categories to group and classify organisms? both. we use large-like domain and kingdom-and from those large groups, develop into smaller groups like species
What does binomial nomenclature involve? giving organisms a 2 part name
What does the 2 part name consist of (binomial nomenclature)? genus and species
What word is capitalized in a 2 part name (binomial nomenclature)? the genus
What does Kings Play Cards On Fancy Golden Stools Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species
What is the most general and largest category of LINNEAS' 7 taxonomic categories Kingdom
What are the 6 Kingdoms of Life we use today Eubacteria Archaebacteria Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia
What former Kingdom did the new Kingdoms Eubacteria and Archaebacteria belong to? monera
What do organisms in King Protista, Fungi, Animalia, and Plantae have in common eukaryotes
Which 2 Kingdoms contain only single-celled organisms? Eubacteria and Archaebacteria
What is the category above Kingdoms, like a "super kingdom" Domain
What are the three domains Eukarya Archaea Bacteria
What kingdoms are in domain Eukarya Plantae, Protista, fungi, and animalia
What kingdoms are in the domain Archaea Archaebacteria
What kingdoms are in the domain Bacteria Eubacteria
What are the 2 bacterial Kingdoms Archaebacteria and Eubacteria
What are the 2 bacterial Domains Bacteria and Archaea
What is the main difference between Archaebacteria and Eubacteria cell walls
What kinds of bacteria does the Kingdom archaebacteria contain extreme bacteria such as methanogens and halophiles
What are the three shapes of bacteria cocci bacilli and spirilla
what shape is cocci spherical
what shape is bacilli rod shaped
what shape is spirilla spiral/corkscrew
What does the gram stain differentiate types of cell walls and the amount of peptidoglycan in cell wall
What color does gram positive bacteria appear purple
What color does gram negative bacteria appear pink
What are the roles of bacteria in the environment? waste and oil cleanup synthesize dugs/chemicals produce heat-stable enzymes that can be used in medicine, food production, and industrial chemistry
What are viruses made of protein coats and a DNA/RNA core
what are pathogens? bacteria (or other microorganisms) that cause disease
What are some ways to preserve food and slow the growth of bacteria low temperatures, sterilization, boiling, freezing, or steaming
What are the shapes of viruses polyhedral bacilli bacteriophage
What are protists eukaryotes that aren't plant, animals, or fungi
What is the protist dilemma they have a vast diversity between them that it is hard to put them into a kingdom, since they can be so different. some are more closely to plantae or Animalia than other protists
What are the 3 types of movement pseudopods cillia+flagella passive
What is Pseudopod movement cytoplasm streams into pseudopod, cell follows, powered by a protein called Actin (used in the contraction of. animal muscles)
What is cilia movement move by short and numerous cilia like oars on a boat
what is flagella movement move by a flagella, a whip-like structure. moves like a tail
what is passive movement non motile; depend on air or water currents; use reproductive cells called spores, which can enter cells of other organisms and live as parasites
What are the 2 types of reproduction in protists sexual: alternation of generations asexual/mitosis
What diseases are caused by bacteria tooth decay Lyme disease tetanus tuberculosis salmonela pneumonia cholera
What diseases are caused by viruses cancer respiratory infections AIDS/HIV chicken pox small pox
what are fungi? heterotrophic eukaryotes with cell walls made of chitin
how do fungi "eat"? by absorbing nutrients from decaying matter in soil digest food outside of body produce enzymes that digest food outside of body decomposers
what is hyphae cells that form long, slender, branching filaments, most contain walls called septa, which create compartment and may contain one or two nuclei
what is mycelium the fruiting body stems from it underneath the ground
are fungi haploid or diploid haploid
what human diseases are caused by fungi athlete's foot and ringworm
What are the requirements to be n animal heterotrophic eukaryotic multicellular diploid no cell walls
what do carnivores eat other animals
what do herbivores eat plants or parts of plats
what do filter feeders eat food particles from the water that they filtered or "caught"
what do detritivores eat detritus, which is decaying bits of plant and animal material
How do you know if an animal has radial symmetry they have circular body plans
how do you know if an animal has bilateral symmetry they have a distinct top and bottom
What percentage of animals are invertebrates 95%
What is a blastula a hollow of cells
what is a protostome an animal whose mouth is formed from the blatopore
what is a dueterostome an animal whose anus is formed from the blastopore
what is a coelem true body cavity that is completely lined with mesoderm
what is a psuedocoelem partially lined with mesoderm
what is an acoelem no body cavity
What are the four characteristics all chordates have dorsal hollow nerve chord notochord pharyngeal pouches post anal tail
what does the notochord form into at some point in a chordates life vertebral column
what does the dorsal hollow nerve chord form into at some point in a chordates life nerve chord and spinal chord
what does the pharyngeal pouches form into at some point in a chordates life human: pharynx aquatic animals: gills
what does the post anal tail form into at some point in a chordates life tail or it just shrinks away
what is a mutualistic symbiotic relationship a symbiotic relationship in which both symbionts benefit ex. coral and algae
what is a parasitic symbiotic relationship a symbiotic relationship in which the parasite feeds off the tissue or body fluids (blood) of the host can cause serious diseases
What are the teeth of carnivores like typically sharp mouthparts for slicing and dicing
what are the teeth of herbivores like typically flat mouthparts for grinding and rasping
what is diffusion the movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
what are the requirements for respiration a thin moist semi-permeable membrane and an oxygen gradient
What are the three respiratory structures breathe through skin lungs gills
what animals use their skin to breathe earthworms and generally smaller aquatic animals
what animals use gills to breathe fish, amphibians, other aquatic animals
what animals use lungs to breathe land animals, mammals
What is an open circulatory system blood stays in blood vessels most of the time and then go and get direct contact with tissues and organs
what is a closed circulatory system blood stays in blood vessels always human have closed circulatory systems
Created by: leahjbutler