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ESPS Summer Finals

Study Guide of ESPS for finals

Crater A large round pit caused by the a meteoroid.
Lithosphere Composed of the crust and upper mantle. Outer part of the earth contains of mantle and crust.
Mantle Hot portion solid material between crust and core
Crust Solid, brittle, outermost layer of the earth. Layer of rock that makes up Earth's surface
Asthenosphere lower layer of crust
Mesosphere The strong, lower part of the mantle between the asthenosphere and the outer core
Core Center of the earth
Ejecta Material thrown out of a crater
Law of Superposition top rock layer and its fossils is the youngest and the bottom is the oldest.
Meteroids Chunks of rock or dust from space
Meteorites Remains of meteoroids that hit the earth or moon
Comet A ball of frozen dust and rock that goes around the sun. glowing tail
Asteroid a small rocky thing orbiting the sun
Uniformitarianism is the idea that the geologic processes that operate today also operated in the past
Relative Age The age of a rock compared to the ages of rock layers
Strata Layers of rock
absolute Age The actual age in years of an event or object
Radiometric Dating method to determine the age of rocks using the rate of decay of radioactive isotopes
Carbon Dating a scientific method used to determine the age of an artifact
Geologic Time Scale A record of the geologic events and life forms in Earth's history.
Half LIfe Time it takes for half of an isotope to decay
Isotope Atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons
Plate tectonics A theory stating that the earth's surface is broken into plates that move.
Convergent Boundaries Boundaries between two plates that are colliding.
Divergent Boundaries Tectonic plates spreading apart, new crust being formed.
Transform Boundaries Places where tectonic plates slide along beside one another as they move.
Subduction One plate going under another plate
Trench a long, narrow ditch.
Volcano A weak spot in the crust where magma has come to the surface.
Erosion Processes by which rock, sand, and soil are broken down and carried away.
Plate boundary The region where two tectonic plates are in contact.
Mid-ocean ridge An underwater mountain chain where new ocean floor is formed.
Convection The transfer of heat by the movement of a fluid.
Sea-floor spreading The process by which molten material adds new oceanic crust to the ocean floor.
Mountains Formed by two continental plates colliding and forcing each other upwards.
Volcanic Arc A chain of volcanic mountains formed at an ocean-continental convergent boundary.
hot spot An area where magma from deep within the mantle melts through the crust above it. Area with high volcanic activity.
Oceanic Crust Earth's crust located under the ocean. It has a high dense and is always recycling itself.
Continental crust A solid, thin outermost layer of Earth.
Ridge push When the force of gravity moves a plate downward and away from a ridge.
Slab pull The pulling of a tectonic plate as its edge sub ducts deep into the mantle.
Fault A break in Earth's crust along which rocks move.
Matter It's everything that has mass and occupies space in the universe.
Energy It exist in many forms, such as heat, light, chemical energy, and electrical energy. It's the ability to bring about change or to do work. Thermodynamics is the study of energy
System It's a set of connected things or parts forming a complex whole.
Open system It's a material system in which mass or energy can be lost to or gained from the environment.
Closed system It's a region that is isolated from its surroundings by a boundary that admits no transfer of matter, only energy across it.
Atmosphere Air (oxygen, nitrogen, water vapor, ozone, wind)
Hydrosphere Water (Oceans, lakes, rivers, groundwater, glaciers, polar ice caps, rain, snow)
Geosphere Land. Earth's mantle, core, and crust: continents, ocean floor, mountains, rocks, sand, metals, dust, asphalt, bricks.
Biosphere Life (plants, humans, insects, microbes, animals)
Cryosphere Frozen/solid water (glaciers, ice caps, ice sheets, Greenland, Antarctica, North Pole)
First law of thermodynamics It states that energy is always conserved, it cannot be created or destroyed. In essence, energy can be converted from one form into another.
Second law of thermodynamics It states that "in all energy exchanges, if no energy enters or leaves the system, the potential energy of the state will always be less than that of the initial state." this is also commonly referred to as entropy.
Convection When a fluid, such as air or a liquid, is heated and then travels away from the source, it carries the thermal energy along. The fluid above a hot surface expands, becomes less dense, and rises.
Nitrogen cycle N2 gas in the atmosphere is not to be used by living organisms. Bacteria, industrial process, and lighting can fix it. The usable form of N2 is Nitrate.
Nitrogen fixation Nitrogen can only be fixed in 3 ways: bacteria, industrial process, and lightning.
Carbon Cycle It's a biogeochemical cycle involving carbon (C). It's the organic circulation of carbon from the atmosphere into organisms and back again
Carbonate CO3 -2.
Photosynthesis Plants use the sun's energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars and exhale oxygen. CO2+H2O+light energy= C6 H12 O6 (glucose/sugar) O2 (oxygen)
Cellular Respiration The process by which cells use oxygen to produce energy from food
Phosphorus cycle It's atoms go from rocks to water and plant roots, then ot animals and back to rocks/soil. It rarely goes to the atmosphere since it's rarely a gas.
Water cycle Continuous circulation of water through the hydrosphere. It first evaporates from forms of water, then it condensates into clouds and precipitates as rain and back into forms of water (ocean, river, lake, etc).
Condensation Water vapor moving together to form a cloud
Precipitation Rain/snow that falls from the cloud
Evaporation Water moving from a pond, river, ocean, etc., to air.
Ecology It's a branch in biology that studies interactions between organisms and their environment
Abiotic Non-living. Physical than biological. Not derived from living organisms
Biotic Living organisms
ecosystem A system formed by the interaction of biotic organisms and abiotic surroundings
Producer Organism that makes its own food; it's at the first level of the food chain.
Consumer Organism that eats other organisms to live (herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, detritivores)
Decomposer Organisms (bacteria) that break down dead or decaying organic matter, and obtain their energy from it.
Carrying Capacity Largest number of individuals of a particular species that a particular environment can support
Homeostasis Stable state of an organism and its internal environment; balance of bodily functions
Food Chain Series of steps in an ecosystem in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten
Food web A system of organisms where there are several interrelated food chains
Energy pyramid A diagram that shows the energy flow of a community in different levels, which represent different organisms groups that might make a food chain
Greenhouse effect Process by which radiation from the earth's atmosphere warms the planet's surface to a temperature above what it should be without its atmosphere.
Global warming observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system, and its related effects. Multiple lines of scientific evidence show that the climate system is warming
Ozone a colorless unstable toxic gas with a pungent odor and powerful oxidizing properties, formed from oxygen by electrical discharges or ultraviolet light. It differs from normal oxygen (O2) in having three atoms in its molecule (O3).
Weather the state of the atmosphere at a place and time as regards heat, dryness, sunshine, wind, rain, etc.
Climate the weather conditions prevailing in an area in general or over a long period.
Sustainability the ability to be maintained at a certain rate or level.
Renewable resource Substance of economic value that can be replaced or replenished in the same or less amount of time as it takes to draw the supply down.
Non renewable resource Resource of economic value that cannot be readily replaced by natural means on a level equal to its consumption.
Biodegradable Capable of being decomposed by bacteria or other living organisms.
Non-biodegradable A substance or chemical that is non-biodegradable cannot be changed to a harmless natural state by the action of bacteria, and may therefore damage the environment.
Troposphere The lowest region of the atmosphere, extending from the earth's surface to a height of about 3.7–6.2 miles (6–10 km), which is the lower boundary of the stratosphere.
Mesosphere Region of the earth's atmosphere above the stratosphere and below the thermosphere, between about 30 and 50 miles (50 and 80 km) in altitude.
Stratosphere The layer of the earth's atmosphere above the troposphere, extending to about 32 miles (50 km) above the earth's surface (the lower boundary of the mesosphere).
Thermosphere Region of the atmosphere above the mesosphere & below the height at which the atmosphere ceases to have properties of a continuous medium. It's characterized throughout by an increase in temperature with height.
Albedo Measure of the diffuse reflection of solar radiation out of the total solar radiation received by an astronomical body. It is dimensionless and measured on a scale from 0 to 1.
Natural resources Materials or substances that occur in nature and can be used for economic gain.
When was the Earth formed? Earth was formed 4.6 billion years ago
Conditions of Earth when it was formed Hot with no life
How did Pangea break up? By the movement of tectonic plates
Describe the theory of plate tectonics Theory that the outer rigid layer of the earth (lithosphere) is divided into "plates" that move around across the earth's surface relative to each other
What is the law of conservation of mass? States that mass in an isolated system can't be created or destroyed by chemical reactions or physical transformations.
Created by: Navan87