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Ch1 Sec2 and 4 B2

Looking Inside Cells and The cell in its Enviorment

What are organelles? they carry out specific functions within a cell.
What is the cell wall? a rigid layer of nonliving material that surrounds the cells of plants.
What is the function of the cell wall? It supports the cell and protects it
What is the cell membrane? controls what substances come in and out
Why does a plant cell with a cell wall need a cell membrane? The cell wall separates the cell from the outside environment, but it cannot control all substances that come into and out of the cell
What is the function of the nucleus? directs all of the cell’s activity
What keeps the material in the nucleus from spilling out? Nuclear envelope
What is the Chromatin? in the nucleus, contain genetic material (the instructions for directing the cell’s functions)
What is the Nucleolus? it is where organelles that make protein are produced
What is Mitochondria? known as the powerhouses of the cell because they convert energy in food molecules to energy the cell can use to carry out its functions
What is the Endoplasmic Reticulum? passageways carry proteins and other materials from one part of the cell to another
What is a ribosome? they the produce proteins
How do ribosomes, Golgi bodies and the endoplasmic reticulum work together? Ribosomes make proteins that are released through the endoplasmic reticulum and moved to the golgi bodies. Golgi bodies move materials around and outside the cell.
Why are chloroplasts found only in plant cells? Because plants are autotrophic and animals are heterotrophic
Which organelles are found only in plant cells? The cell wall and chloroplasts
Which are found on both plant and animal cells? Everything else
What is a Lysosome? small, round structures containing chemicals that break down certain materials in the cell
List the functions of the following cells. Nerve cells: carry information throughout the human body Red blood cells: carry oxygen throughout the human body Bone cells: produce chemicals that strengthen the bones in our body
How does the location of the genetic material in the bacteria differ from its location in animal and plant cells? Bacterial cell- the genetic material is located in the cytoplasm Plant and animal cell- the genetic material is found in the nucleus
What are ALL cells surrounded by? What does it do? a cell membrane, it separates the cell from its outside environment and controlled what went in and out of the cell
What does Selectively permeable mean? it means that some substances can pass through while others cannot
What is the main way small molecules move across the cell membrane? Diffusion
In what direction do molecules move during diffusion? From an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
Suppose a permeable membrane separates salt solutions with concentrations of 5 g/L and 7 g/L. Which way will the salt diffuse across membrane? From 7 to 5
What would happen if the concentration of oxygen molecules outside the cell was lower than inside the cell? It would go out of the cell
What is Osmosis? the diffusion of water molecules through a selectively permeable membrane
What are the 2 different types of passive transport? Diffusion and osmosis
What is Active transport? the movement of materials through a cell membrane using cellular energy
Created by: magicPop