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Adv Patho ETSU 5016 NP

Which cells have a nucleus and membrane enclosed organelles Eukaryotic Cells
Which cells are unicelluar without nucleus or organelles? Prokaryotic Cells
Which cells have cell membrane, cytoplasm, and genetic material (DNA) All cells
Which cells have mitochondria? plant and animal cells
What dictates what the cell will do and how it will do it? DNA
What is chromatin Tangled form of DNA inside nuclear membrane
When DNA is ready to divide, what do the chromatin form into? Chromosomes
Where are ribosomes created? Nucleolus
What do ribosomes synthesize? proteins
What is the structure that ribosomes attach to to form proteins? Rough endoplasmic reticulum rER
What is smooth endoplasmic reticulum sER w/o ribosomes
What is the function of the ER? To release proteins in vesicles to the Golgi bodies
What is the fx of the Golgi body It reforms proteins so the body can use them and adds things like lipids/carbs
What are lysosomes fx? Take in damaged parts of cells and break down using enzymes
What is fx of mitochondria Cellular respiration and make ATP
How does cell maintain shape? The cytoskeleton is maintained via microfilaments and microtubules
What is the only animal cell with a flagellum? sperm cell
As RBCs mature, what do they lose? lysosomes
As RBCs mature what do they produce? hemoglobin
As RBCs mature, they have small __________ bodies and enlarged___________? Golgi, endoplasmic reticulum, lose mitochondria
How much ATP is produced in aerobic respiration? 36 ATP
How much ATP produced in glycolysis? Anaerobic Energy Metabolism? 2 ATP
How much ATP in Krebs Cycle? Aerobic Energy Metabolism 2 ATP
How much ATP produced in Electron Transport Chain? 32 ATP
What is the chemical reaction formula in aerobic respiration? C6h12O6 + 6O2 = 6CO2 + 6 H2O
What occurs in glycolysis?
What occurs in the Krebs cycle?
Is glycolysis aerobic or anaerobic? Anaerobic
What is passive diffusion? Molecules move randomly away from the area where they are most concentrated
What is facilitated diffusion? Mol diffuse across a membrane by passing through a protein
What is Osmosis? Diffusion of water mol
What do receptor proteins do? Enable cell communication by attaching to cell surface and open ion channel. Cause 2nd cell released in cell, turn on enzymes and stimulate transcription of genes in nucleus.
Is resting membrane potential negative or positive? Negative (inside cell)
What changes cell to be more positive? NA+ ions to diffuse in cell, depolarization. Threshold potential = more NA+ channels open
What is an action potential? cell responds, i.e. contracting
When does the cell repolarize? K+ channels open, diffuse out, making cell negative
What is Na+/K+ ATPase do? removes Na+ from cell and pumps K+ back in
Be able to know atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, metaplasia, dysplasia
What four things stress damaged cells? 1. Direct damage to proteins, membranes, DNA 2. ATP depletion 3. Free radical formation 4. Incr intracellular calcium
What does hypoxia cause? ATP depletion/power failure where aerobic met stops, NA/K pump slows down, cells swell w water, anaerobic met use - lactic acid produced, acid damage cell membrane, structures, DNA
What is a free radical? Unpaired electron in outer electron shell, unstable, reactive, removed by antioxidants, oxidative stress
What is the difference b/n oxidation & reduction? Oxidation: losing an electron Reduction: Gaining an electron
What are three mechanisms of cell injury? 1. reversible inj, cell recovery/return to normal fx 2. Apoptosis/programmed cell removal, normal process 3. Cell death/necrosis, cells swell/rupture, inflammation results
What is Caspases? Enzyme turned on inside cell, digest own cell proteins/DNA, then destroyed by WBC
Apoptosis can be caused by? 1. Signal attached to cell surface receptors 2. mitochondrial damage inside cell 3. Protein p53 activated by DNA damage
Liquefaction, coagulation, infarction, caseous necrosis all are part of? cell death and degradation, where cell contents released and inflammation occurs
What is dry gangrene? lack of arterial supply, but venous flow can carry fluid out of tissue, tissue coagulates
What is wet gangrene? lack of venous flow lets fluid accumulate in tissue, which liquefies and infection is likely
What is gas gangrene? Clostridium infection, toxins/H2S bubbles. Only type to cause crepitus.
How do cells change with aging? Telomeres become too short, cell can no longer divide
Is aging caused by accumulated damage? Have more DNA damage, more free radicals, can lose ability to repair their telomeres
Created by: palmerag