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genetics vocabulary

QuestionAnswer
heredity the passing of traits from parents to offspring
trait a specific characteristic than an organism can pass to its offspring through its genes
fertilization the process in sexual reproduction in which an egg cell and a sperm cell join to form a new cell
genetics the scientific study of heredity
purebred an offspring of many generations that has the same form of a trait
gene a sequence of DNA that determines a trait and is passed from parent to offspring
allele the different forms of a gene
recessive allele an allele that is hidden whenever the dominant allele s present
dominant allele an allele whose trait always shows up in the organism when the allele is present
hybrid an offspring of crosses that has two different alleles for a trait
probability a number that describes how likely it is that a particular event will occur
punnett square a chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross
phenotype an organism's physical appearance or visible traits
genotype an organism's genetic makeup, or allele combinations
homozygous having two identical alleles for a particular gene
heterozygous having two different alleles for a particular gene
incomplete dominance a situation in which one allele is not completely dominant over another allele
codominance a situation in which both alleles for a gene are expressed equally
multiple alleles three or more possible alleles of a gene that determine a trait
polygenic inheritance the inheritance of traits that are controlled by two or more genes, such as height in humans
meiosis the process that occurs in the formation of sex cells (sperm and egg) by which the number of chromosomes is reduced by half
Created by: minty.shotz