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Hypo/Epi/Subthalamus

Med 1

NuclizzalFunction and Lesion
Lateral Hypothalamic feeding center; lesion—> starvation. stimulated by ghrelin, inhibited by leptin
Ventromedial satiety center; lesion—> hyperphagia, obesity, savage behavior. stimulated by leptin
Suprachiasmatic receives direct retinal input, regulates circadian rhythms, secretes norepinephrine to pineal gland
Supraoptic and Paraventricular synthesizes ADH (regulates water balance) and oxytocin (suckling at breast); lesion—> diabetes insipidus (characterized by polydipsia and polyuria)
Mamillary body input from hippocampus via fornix (Hippo receives cingulate gyrus via entorhinal cortex); damaged in Wernicke encephalopathy [Papez circuit]
Arcuate has neurons that produce dopamine
Anterior Region temp regulation (hot one, responds to heat), stimulates parasympathetic NS to cool the body down; lesion —>hyperthermia
Posterior Region temp regulation (cold one, responds to cold), stimulates sympathetic NS to heat body up; lesion —> poikilothermia (inability to thermoregulate)
Preoptic Area regulates release of gonotrophic hormones; contains sexually dimorphic nucleus; lesion b4 puberty —> arrested sexual development; lesion after puberty—>amenorrhea or impotence
Dorsomedial stimulation —> savage behavior
Epithalamus pineal body and habenular nuclei, PB secretes melatonin with a circadian rhythm
Subthalamus nucleus involved in BG; lesion —> hemiballismus (contralateral flinging movements of one or both extremities)
Created by: JustinCo