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Chapter 15

Biosphere all organisms and the part of Earth where they exist
Biota Collection of living things
Hydrosphere the portion of Earth that is water
Atmosphere air blanketing earth's solid surface
Geosphere features of Earth's surface - such as continents and the sea floor - and everything below Earth's surface
Climate the average weather conditions in an area over a long period of time
macroclimate climate of a specific location within a larger area
canopy dense covering formed by the uppermost branches of trees
grassland biome in which the primary plant life is grass
desert biome characterized by a very dry climate
deciduous tree that has adapted to winter temperatures by dropping its leaves and going dormant during the cold season
coniferous tree that retains its needles year-round and reproduces with cones
taiga a region of evergreen, coniferous forests below the arctic and subarctic tundra regions
Tundra a treeless plain that is located in the Arctic or Antarctic and that is characterized by very low winter temperatures; short, cool summers; and vegetation that consists of grasses, lichens, and perennial herbs
chaparral biome characterized by hot dry summers and cool moist winters; also called Mediterranean shrubland
intertidal zone strip of land between the high and low tide lines
neritic zone zone of the ocean that extends from the intertidal zone out to th edge of the continental shelf
Bathyal zone zone of the ocean that extends from the edge of the neritic zone to the base of the continental shelf
abyssal zone depth of the ocean that lies below 2000 meters and is in complete darkness
plankton microscopic, free-floating organisms, which may be animals or protists, that live in the water
zooplankton animal plankton
phytoplankton photosynthetic microscopic protists, such as algae
coral reef a limestone ridge found in tropical climates and composed of coral fragments that are deposited around organic remains
kelp forest ocean habitat that exists in cold, nutrient-rich shallow coastal waters, composed of large communities of kelp, a seaweed
estuary an area where fresh water from rivers mixes with salt water from the ocean; the part of a river where the tides meet the river current
watershed region of land that drains into a river, river system, or other body of water
littoral zone area between the high and low water marks along the shoreline of a lake or pond
limnetic zone open water of a lake or pond that is located away from shore
benthic zone lake or pond bottom, where little to no sunlight can reach
Created by: mariazierolf