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Bio SOL

QuestionAnswer
Louis Pasteur Proved spontaneous generation does NOT occur, S flask
Homeostasis Maintain internal stability when environment changes
Prokaryote Lack nucleus, lysosomes, ER, and mitochondria
Eukaryote Have nucleus and membrane-bound organelles
Archaebacteria Prokaryote, single strand of DNA, smallest cell (ocean vent bacteria)
Eubacteria Prokaryote, single strand of DNA, smallest cell, different cell wall protein (strep throat)
Protista Eukaryote, single cell (amoeba, paramecium, algae)
Flagella --
Cilia --
Golgi body Packages proteins
ER Makes proteins
Smooth ER Makes membranes
Ribosome Makes proteins
Diffusion From high to low concentration
Osmosis Diffusion of water
Isotonic Equal water concentration
Hypotonic Water enters the cell, swells
Hypertonic Water is pulled out of the cell, shrinks
Cohesion Water sticks to water
Adhesion Water is attracted to different substances
Enzyme Lowers activation energy for chemical reactions
Carbohydrate Short term storage (monosaccharides, simple sugar)
Protein Control chemical reactions, structure, fights diseases (amino acids)
Lipid Long term energy storage, main molecules of membranes (1 glycerol, 3 fatty acids)
Nucleic Acid Instructions for protein synthesis, pass on genetic info (nucleotides)
Haploid Half # of chromosomes
Diploid Full set of chromosomes
Chromatin --
Chromatid --
Mitosis Split one cell into two identical cells - asexual reproduction
Meiosis Split one cell into four cells with half the chromosomes - gametes: eggs and sperm
Interphase --
Prophase --
Metaphase --
Anaphase --
Telophase --
Anaerobic respiration Does NOT use oxygen, occurs in cytoplasm, produces 2 ATP (alcohol fermentation)
Aerobic respiration Uses oxygen, occurs in mitochondria, produces 36 ATP
Cellular respiration Breaks down food for ATP
Endocytosis Moves particles into the cell
Exocystosis Moves particles out of the cell
DNA replication Occurs in the nucleus of the cell, results in an exact copy of the original strand
Transcription Occurs in the nucleus, makes mRNA copy of the gene
Translation mRNA is translated into a chain amino acids
Classification DKPCOFGS
Viruses DNA or RNA strand, surrounded by a protein coat
Viruses are different from bacteria bc- They are not alive, cannot reproduce, are not cells
Bryophyte Depends on water for reproduction, small, lack vascular tissue (Moss, Liverworts, Hornworts)
Seedless Vascular Ferns, Horsetails, Club mosses
Gymnopserm Produce seeds on cones (Gnetophytes, Cycads, Ginkos, Conifers)
Angiosperm Produce seeds from flowers (eggs and pollen are reproductive organs)
Porifera Eukaryotes, specialized cells, pulls water in through pores (sponges)
Cnidaria Soft body, specialized tissues, tentacles with stinging cells (hydra, jellyfish, sea anemone, corals)
Platyhelminthese Flatworms
Nematoda Roundworms
Annelida Segmented worms (earthworms, leeches, neries, feathery things)
Molluska Soft body, internal or external shell, reproduces sexually (clams, squids)
Arthropoda Exoskeleton, jointed legs, metamorphosis (crabs, insects)
Echinodermata Spiny skin, tube feet, radial symmetry, internal skeleton (starfish)
Charles Darwin Theory of Natural Selection
Low power objective Magnifies 10x
High power objective Magnifies 40x
Fine adjsutment Fine focuses
Coarse adjustment Fines object in low power/focus
Diaphragm Change light level
Eye piece Sees object, magnifies 10x
Polarity Electrons are more attracted to the larger oxygen atom in the water molecule so oxygen is slightly negative and hydrogens are slightly positive.
Parasitism One organism benefits, the other is harmed
Commensalism One organism benefits, the other is unaffected
Mutualism Both organisms benefit
Centrioles --
Cell membrane molecule Double lipid layer, protein, carbohydrate
Photosynthesis formula 6CO2 + 6H2O + light energy = C6H12O6 + 6O2
Difference between photosynthesis and respiration Photosynthesis stores energy, respiration releases ATP from food
Adaptation Characteristics that help organisms survive in their environment
Lamarck Theory of Acquired Traits
Transpiration Evaporation off of plant leaves
Detritivore Animal that feeds off of dead organic material
Primary succession No soil after disturbance
Secondary succession Community is disturbed but soil still exists
Pioneer species Lichen and bacteria
Population density Number of individuals living in a unit of area
Carrying capacity Largest number of individuals an environment can support
Exponential growth Growth under the ideal conditions with reproduction at a constant rate
Cell theory All living things are made of cells, cells are basic units of life, all cells are produced from other cells
Principle of dominance When you cross 2 different true breeding alleles one characteristic will cover up the other one
Incomplete dominance A heterozygote shows a mixture of the 2 characteristics, neither gene is dominant (red + white = pink)
Codominance A heterozygote shows both characteristics
Chargaff's rules --
Genetic engineering --
Evolution --
Natural selection --
Directional selection Individuals at one end of the curve survive better
Stabilizing selection Organisms survive better near the center of the curve
Disruptive selection Organisms at both end survive better
Binary fission Asexual reproduction (bacteria)
Lytic infection --
Miller and Urey --
Hooke First to see cells (cork) and to name them "cells"
Van Leeuwenhoek Discovered bacteria or "protozoa" and made the first microscope
Schleiden Found that all plants are made of cells
Schwann Found all animals are made of cells
Virchow Found that all cells come from existing cells
High heat capacity --
Surface tension A measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid
Capillary action Process powered by adhesion that causes water molecules to move upward through a narrow tube such as the stem of a plant.
Macromolecules Carbon compounds formed from chains of monomers into polymers
Protein pumps --
Linnaeus Scientist who created Classification based on similar physical structure
Molecular clock Neutral mutations
Conjugation Sexual reproduction
Down's Syndrome Has extra 21 chromosome
Patau's Syndrome Has extra 13 chromosome
Klinefelter's Syndrome Has extra sex chromosome (tall, lower intellect)
Turner's Syndrome Missing sex cell (female, short, not sexually mature)
Hydrophilic Substances that dissolve in water
Hydrophobic Substances that DON'T dissolve in water
Active transport Low to high concentration, REQUIRES ENERGY (protein pumps)
Centromere Middle of the chromosome
Mitosis has- Daughter cell has 46 chromosomes, makes two daughter cells
Meiosis has- Daughter cell has 23 chromosomes, makes four daughter cells
ATP stands for- Adenosine Triphosphate
S curve Increase until something limits growth, then population decreases
J curve Growth under ideal conditions
Segregation Alleles separate during gamete formation