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# Science 3.1 and 3.2

### notes

are reference points in the earth's surface North and South poles
divides the Earth into North and South hemispheres equator
lines that run East and West parallel to the Equator parallels
the angular distance North or South of the equator latitude
each degree of latitude is _ miles and _ km 111 m. 66.6 km
minute sign '
minute equals _ km 1.85
minute equals _ mi. 1.11
sign for seconds ''
51 seconds of latitude is _ 38 degrees, 53'51''N
lines that run from pole to pole meridian
angular distance between East and West of the Prime Meridian longitude
between the longitudes and the equator= _ km 111
between the poles and the equator, there are_km or miles 20km or 12 miles
any line that circles the Earth and divides the earth into halfs; used in navigation The Great Circle
has an exact match - creates great circles lines of longitude
piece of a circle arch
nautical mile= 1 minute of latitude or longitude
Nautical miles apply to the _. Why? air or seas- fluids
Statute mile = land mile
liquid or a gas fluid
_ nautical miles between each 69
difference between nautical miles and statute mile obstacle and curves up and down- statutestraight- nautical
very fast spur of air jet stream
points on the earth surface that a compass needle points to located at the tilted axis geometric poles
straight up and down geograohic north pole(true north)
Earths geographic poles are on the ____. axis
Earths magnetic poles are on the _____. points on the Earth's surface where magnetic fields are strongest
the angle between the direction of the geographic pole and the direction in which the compass needle points magnetic declination
nautical mile = 1 minute of an arc or a meridian or 6076 feet
each degree of latitude = 111 km or 69 miles
unit of speed that is = to one nautical m/h knot
knot = 1.51 mph
a vessel traveling one knot along the meridian travels ____ of geographical latitude in 1 hour 1 minute
statute mile= _ feet 5280
metric mile = 1500 meters
a flat map that represents the 3D curved surface on a globe map projection
to throw out or cast forward such as a light on a screen project
name the three most common map projections Mercator,Gnomonic,Conic
distortions are always present when a __ object is projected onto a __ surface round; flat
Mercator projection = cyndrilical
How mercator projection is made- wrap a cylinder of paper around a lighted globe
the distortion for a mercator projection areas near the poles have the greatest distance,because meridians appear a straight lines
the advantage of a mercator projection- all compass directions are straight
How Gnomic is made- a sheet of paper touching a lighted globe at one point
distortions of a Gnomic projection- point that paper touches is very accurate; everything else is distorted
advantages of a Gnomic projection- used in navigation when plotting Great Circles- especially plotting North Pole
How Conic projections are made- paper cone placed over a lighted globe at a particular location
disortions of a Conic projection get 1 particular location and everything else is distorted
advantages of a Conic projection get a clear and up close view of a particular location
legend = map key
Created by: surfergurl