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Ethan.Unit #14

"You Be the Teacher-Nuclear Chemistry"

TermDefinition
Radioisotopes Reactions in which the nuclei of unstable isotopes gain stability by undergoing changes.
radioactivity The emission of ionizing radiation or particles caused by the spontaneous disintegration of atomic nuclei.
radiation The penetrating rays and particles emitted by a radioactive source.
radioactive decay The process of a nucleus losing energy by emitting radiation.
alpha radiation A type of radiation consisting of helium nuclei that have been emitted from a radioactive source.
alpha particles The emitted particles that are part of alpha radiation.
beta radiation radiation consisting of fast-moving electrons formed by the decomposition of a neutron in an atom.
beta particles Fast moving electrons released by a nucleus. They are negatively charged.
Gamma radiation High energy electromagnetic radiation given off by a radioisotope.
band of stability A region where the stable nuclei on a neutron-versus proton plot are located.
positron A particle with the mass of an electron but a positive charge.
half-life The time required for one-half of the nuclei of a radioisotope sample to decay to products.
transmutation The conversion of an atom of one element to an atom of another element.
transuranium elements The elements in the periodic table with atomic numbers above 92.
fission When the nuclei of certain isotopes are bombarded with neutrons.
Ionizing radiation Radiation with enough energy to knock electrons off some atoms of the bombarded substance to produce ions.
Fusion When nuclei combine to produce a nucleus of greater mass.
Neutron moderation A process that reduces the speed of neutrons so they can be captured by the reactor fuel.
Neutron absorption A process that decreases the number of slow moving neutrons.
Geiger counter A device that uses a gas-filled metal tube to detect radiation.
Created by: ebernet
 

 



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