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radiation terms

medical terminology test

petechiae collection of blood smaller than 3cm
laceration cut
fissure deep furrow
contusion bruise
cyto/o cell
lip/o fat (tumor)
adip/o fat (tissue)
cutane/o skin
derm/o skin
biopsy sample of
trich/o hair
pil/o hair
scler/o hard
necr/o death
xer/o dry
myc/o fungating
kerat/o hardening
subcutaneous layer holds vessels
dermis basement membrane (connective tissue)
epidermis outer layer (squamous or basal) majority of tumors arise here
onych/o nail
erg/o working
aer/o air
thec/o membrane sheath (brain, spinal cord)
contra against
anti against
-lytic split/separate/reduce down
-phylaxis protection
narc/o stupor/ sleepiness
Iatr/o coming from treatment/physician
Idi/o myself
pyr/o fever inducing
hypn/o sleep
-static to stop
-cidal killing
vit/o life
hist/o tissue
vas/o vessel
alesi/o sensitivity to pain
esthesi/o feeling/ sensation
ven/o vein
enter/o small intestine
lingu/o tounge
toxic/o toxic
chem/o chemical/drug
pharmac/o drug
diuretic fluid loss/ increases urine production
anaphylaxis hypersensitive reaction to a drug or treatment
contraindications factor that prevents patient from having a particular drug
estrogen female sex hormone
narcotic relieves pain
hypnotic produces sleep
glucocorticoids hormones( from adrenal glands)-can be given raises blood sugar
emetic brings on vomiting
androgen male sex hormone- suppresses prostate
sedative mild hypnotic
myring/o ear drum
blemphar/o eyelid
acous/o hearing
retin/o retina
ot/o ear
opthalm/o eye
ocul/o eye
calc/o calcium
adren/o adrenal glands
scler/o sclara of the eye
thyroid/o thyroid
thym/o thymus
hydr/o water
myxedema hyperthyroidism- adults creatnism- kids
gigantism excessive growth hormone
exophalthmos bulging outward of the eye (proptosis)
my/o muscle
myel/o bone marrow/ spinal cord
crani/o skull
cost/o cartilage
chondr/o cartilage
arthr/o joint
cervico/o cervix
vertebr/o vertebrae
thorac/o thoracic
tend/o tendon
pelv/l pelvis
oste/o bone
men/o monthly
mast/o breast
mamm/o breast
hyster/o uterus
gynec/o reproductive
vagin/o vagina
colp/o opening to cervix
orchi/o testicles
salping/o fallopian tubes
Oophor/o ovaries
test/o testicle
orchid/o testicles
crpytorchidism UN-descended testicle
benign prostate hypertrophy BPH --> mimmicks prostate cancer (prostate enlarges)
endometriosis cells from lining of uterus grow in other areas of the body
ectopic pregnancy implantation outside the fallopian tubes
urin/o urine
pyel/o renal pelvis
urethr/o urethra
ureter/o ureter
ren/o kidneys
nephr/o kidneys
cyst/o bladder
py/o puss
noct/o night
lith/o stone
hemat/o blood
bacteri/o bacteria
cholecyst/o gall bladder
append/o appendix
uremia renal failure (buildup of urine in blood)
cystitis inflammation of the bladder
esophag/o esophagus
enter/o small bowel
duoden/o duodenum
dent/o teeth
colon/o colon
pancreat/o pancreas
lapar/o flank
gloss/o tongue
jejun/o jejunum (small bowel)
ile/o ileum (small bowel)
hepat/o liver
gastr/o stomach
diverticulitis inflammation of the diverticulum
emesis vomit
cirrhosis inflammation of the liver
ascities fluid buildup within abdomen (women with ovarian cancer)
sigmoid/o sigmoid colon
rect/o rectum
proct/o rectum
laryng/o larynx
epiglott/o epiglottis
chondr/o cartilage
bronch/o bronchus
diverticulum out-pouching of a hollow (or fluid filled) structure in the body
CNS central nervous system
neur/o nerve
myel/o spinal cord/ bone marrow
mening/o lining of the brain
enceph/o brain
CVA cerebrovascular accident
CT computed tomography
CSF cerebral spinal fluid
epilepsy recurring seizures
sciatica prostate cancer treatment
MS multiple sclorosis
MRI magnetic resonance imaging
EEG electro encephalogram
Ecchymosis collection of blood larger than 3mm
cyst pocket of fluid
cellulitis wide spread cellular inflammation
alopecia hair loss
abrasion scratch
vesicle blister- (serous fluid)
pustule contains pus
papule pimple- (elevation)
or/o mouth
naso/o nose
rhin/o nose
pharyng/o pharynx
stomat/o opening/ a hole
pneum/o lungs (air in lungs)
pleur/o lungs
hemothroax blood in thoracic cavity/ lining of lungs
orth/o straightening
muc/o mucous
trache/o trachea
thorac/o chest
pulmon/o lungs
hypertension high blood pressure
embolus traveling clot
aneuyrism outpouching/ weakening
pleural effusion buildup within plueral cavity
orthopnea difficulty breathing while laying flat
pneumothorax air- fluid in cavity
stridor difficulty breathing/ cant catch breath lungs aren't expanding
aort/o vessel
vas/o vessel
angi/o vessel
aden/o glandular
lymphoma malignancy of lymphatics
myocardial infarction heart attack
ischemia narrowing of artery
hem/o blood
cardi/o heart
ather/o plaque
arteri/o artery
lymph/o lymph
sangui/o blood
adren/o adrenals
hemat/o blood
cerebr/o brain
ventricul/o ventricle
thromb/o clot
splen/o spleen
phleb/o vein
characteristics of a malignant neoplasm undifferentiated unencapsulated metastatic rapidly multiplying invasive + infiltrative anaplastic (don't have shape) finger-like projections
anaplasia reverted back to primal state- lacking form or shape (stem cell)
dysplasia abnormal look to it doesn't mean cancer
metaplasia changing from one cell type to another doesn't mean cancer
hyperplasia increase in size because of increase in cell #
cumulation toxicity of drug increases with each dose you take
tolerance increased uptake of that drug causes you to build a resistance to it
idiosyncracy any unexpected effect from a drug
characteristics of a benign neoplasm well differentiated (specialized, grown up) encapsulated (enclosed by a membrane) slow growing non invasive non metastatic
complication something unexpected occured
potentiation (synergism) mix 2 drugs and by mixing them they act upon each other to increase their efficiency (more than if used alone)
additive putting 2 drugs together- doesn't cause a greater effect- same affect as sum of both drugs
chemotherapy use of drugs in treatment of cancer and infectious disease
toxicology study of harmful effects of drugs on the body
side effect expected occurrence of a drug
midsagittal equally left and right
parasagittal anywhere left and right
medicinal chemistry new drug synthesis
pharmacodynamics drug effects on the body
pharmacokinetics drug concentration in tissues and blood measured over a period of time
molecular pharmacology interaction of drugs and components inside cell or cell surface
trendelenburg heads lower than feet
decubitis laying on back
erect standing upright
coronal split -> front and back
sagittal split -> left and right
transverse cut into body (axial)
longitudinal coronal or sagittal
anterior top of surface
posterior bottom of surface
recumbent to lay down
supine on back, face up
prone on belly, face down
proximal (use with extremities) further away from trunk
inferior towards feet
superior towards head
caudal inferior-- towards feet
cephalic superior-- towards head
proximal (use with extremities) closer to trunk
organs group of tissues with same function
systems group of organs working together
spine sections + amounts cervical- 7 thoracic- 12 lumbar- 5 saccrum- 3-5 fused
lateral outward from midline
medial midline
primary language sources for radiation therapy * Greek * Latin
secondary language sources for radiation therapy * English * French * German * other
cells smallest substance in body able to live on its own
tissues group of cells with same function
transhepatic involving direct injection (as of a radiopaque medium) into the bile ducts
hypogastric inferior to stomach
endocrine glands glands that secrete hormones into blood stream
exocrime glands glands of external secretion
endocrinology study of glands that secrete hormones
psychiatry treatment of the mind
pathology study of disease
cardiology study of the heart
cerebrovascular accident stroke
encephalitis inflammation of the brain
neurology study of the nerves
pediatrics study of children
radiology study of x-rays and diagnostic imaging
opthalmology study of the eyes
gateroenterology study of the stomach and intestines
-cyte cell
urology study of the urinary tract
gynecology study of women and women's diseases
hematology study of the blood
oncology study of tumors
nephrology study of the kidneys
-scope instrument to visually examine
-osis abnormal condition
-ectomy removal/ excision/ resection
-genic pertaining to/ produced by
-pathy disease condition
-tomy incision/ cutting into
-itis inflammation
sarcoma malignant tumor of connective tissue or non-epithelial tissue
-algia pain
-ion process
-emia into the blood
-gram record
thrombocyte platlet: tiny bits of protoplasm found in the vertebrae blood: essential for blood clotting
renal of or relating to the kidneys
nephrectomy surgical removal of one or both kidneys
osteotomy surgical cutting of bone or removal of a piece of bone
resection surgical removal of a part or structure of an organ
carcinogenic having potential to cause cancer
thromb/o clotting
onc/o tumor
opthalamoscopy instrument to examine the eye
oncology study and treatment of tumors
osteitis inflammation of the substance of a bone
psychosis severe metal disorder in which though + emotions are so impaired that contact is lost with external reality
psych/o mind
ur/o urinary tract
oste/o bone
radi/o x-ray
ren/o kidney
path/o disease
opthalm/o eye
sect/o to cut
rhin/o nose
sarc/o flesh
nephorology study of kidneys
erythrocytes red blood cells
hematoma mass of blood
bioposy process of viewing living tissue
neuopathy pain on nerves
opthalmoscopy visual examining of the eye
enteritis inflammation of the small intestine
arthroscopy minimally invasive surgery to repair a damaged joint
cytology branch of biology concerned with the structure and function of cells
leukocyte white blood cell
gastritis inflammation of the stomach
Iatrogenic coming from treatment or physician
cardiology branch of medicine that deals with disease and abnormalities of the heart
electroencephalogram test or record of brain activity produced by electroencephalography
dermatitis inflammation of the skin
biopsy examination of tissue removed from the living body to discover the presence, cause or extent of disease
adenitis inflammation of a gland or lymph node
cephalic of, or relating to the head
carcinoma cancer arising from epithelial tissue of skin or the lining of internal organs
cytoscopy endoscopy of bladder via the urethra
electrocardiogram EEG-- record or display of a persons heartbeat produced by electrocadiography
-ic of the kind of, having the characteristic of, pertaining to
-al of the kind of, having the characteristic of, pertaining to
-scopy observation or visual examination
-oma tumor
cerebral of the cerebrum of the brain
enceohal/o brain
arthr/o joint
electr/o electric
-opsy medical examination
-logy science or study of
-gram write or record
-itis inflammation
bi/o life
cerebr/o brain or spinal cord
derm/o skin
dermat/o skin
cephal/o head
root of a word foundation of a word
suffix of a word word ending
prefix of a word word beginning
carcin/o cancer
aden/o gland
cyst/o bladder
purgative strong cathardic
barbituate sedative/ hypnotic
antihistamine blocks histamine production
antidote combats unwanted side effects from a drug
antiarrythymic any drug impacting rhythm of heart
cathartic relieves constipation
cadiotonic promotes efficiency of heart
beta-blockers blocks epinephrine in muscle of heart
VPB (chemotherapy regiment) * vinblastine * cisplatin * bleomyclin
*CMF (chemotherapy regiment) * cytoxin * methotrexate * 5-FU
COP (chemotherapy regiment) * Cytoxin * oncovin * prednisone
POMP (chemotherapy regiment) * prednisone * oncovin * methotrexate * 6- mercaptopurine
*MOPP (chemotherapy regiment) * meclorthamine (nitrogen mustard) * oncovin * prednisone * procarbozine
papillary forming finger-like projections/ nipple like (bladder)
verrucous wart-like in appearance
pleomorphic composed of many cell types (mixed cell tumors)
nodular cells tightly packed together
antimetabolite (example of a cytotoxic agent) * stops enzyme production
medullary large, fleshy-like tumor
serous filled with serous fluid (blister)
mucinous filled with mucous
bone marrow aspiration to remove bone marrow wither for testing or to be replaced (taken from iliac crest)
endoscopic resection going in with an endoscope and taking a sample out
lapartomy opening up abdomen (second look procedure)
lumbar puncture removing spinal fluid from subarachnoid space
cytotoxic agent any agent that's cell killing
alkylating agents (example of cytotoxic agent) destroys DNA molecule most toxic for chemo (GI issues + hair loss)
scirrhous hard, densely packed tissue
spontaneous regression revert back to normal
cytological examination looking at cells under microscope
serology scientific study of blood serum and other bodily fluids
alpha-fetoprotein AFP- liver-germ cell (plasma protein)
carcinoembryonic antigen test CEA- serology study
latent period period of time from when exposed to substance or agent until disease or cancer arises
muticentric having many centers; characteristic of malignancy
remission to abate; symptoms stop
carcinogenic anything the creates/ causes cancer
differentiation process by which stem cells grow up to be adult cells
disseminated to spread- metastisize
dormant currently not active
in situ hasn't penetrated the basement membrane (To for TNM system)
abdominal bath specific way to irradiate the abdomen using a radionuclide * gas *liquid (usually) -> phosphorus 32
Arc rotation treatment with beam on while the gantry rotates around patient * 360 degrees * 120 degrees
astrocytoma (glial cells) brain tumor. most commonly for a primary. grows rapidly, so treat with surgery 1st. patient is also on steroids. true multi-modality treatment.
attenuation absorbing ability of a material
transmission/penetration ability of beam to travel through something
bite block head and neck immobilization
bolus tissue equivalent (same atomic #) * fill a deficient/divet to make flat surface * to bring beam anterior
cerrobend (lipowitz metal) lead alloy consisting of: bismuth, lead, tin, cadium
custom blocks (divergent blocks) must attenuate 95% of beam
field (aka port) area of treatment
hyperthermia use of heat to treat/ablait it * ultrasound * hot water bath
immobilization devices any device that assists patient in holding a position
isocenter (100 SAD) center of treatment and machine rotation
isodose curves lines of equal percentage
kaposi's sarcoma malignancy associated with HIV virus (connective tissue cancer)
keloid benign scar tissue
lasers used for patient positioning and setup
separation inter-field distance (thickness) can tell you SSD if at midpoint
wedges alter beam and dose distribution; flatter inhomogenous surface thick end- heel thin end- toe
weighting radiation dose delivery- way to alter dose- don't have to equal distribution for each angle
NED no evidence of disease
split course rest period can be planned or unplanned
roentgen ionizations in air(R)
RAD radiation absorbed dose si unit: Cgy
REM radiaiton equivalent man--radiation protection
curie radioactivity--brachytherapy
axilla latin for armpit
bleopharo, bleophar eyelid or eyelash
bucca latin for cheek
canthus angle at either end of the slit between the eyelids
cephalo relating to the head
cervix latin for neck or neck-like part
cheilo greek for lip
corium latin for true skin
cubitus latin for elbow, but mainly used to refer to forearm
cutis latin for skin
dorsum latin for back
gingiva gum
glosso tongue
inguen latin for groin
labio lip, especially lip of mouth
laparo loin or flank, sometimes used loosely to refer to abdomen
latus, latero latin for side
lingua latin for tongue
mamma latin for breast, or mammary gland
masto, mast breast
naris latin for one of the openings to the nasal cavity
oculo eye
odonto tooth or teeth
oma shoulder
omphalo navel (umbilicus)
ora latin for mouth
oto ear
palpebra latin for eyelid
stomato, stoma mouth
adeno gland
adreno adrenal gland
angio, angi vessel, usually a blood vessel
arterio artery
auriculo ear shaped appendage of either atrium of the heart; the pinna or flap of the ear
bronchi,broncho bronchus
cerebello cerebellum, a part of the brain
cerebro cerebrum, a part of the brain
colp vagina
corpus latin for body or main part of any organ, or a mass of specialized tissue
cysto bladder or sac most often used in reference to the urinary bladder, but also in connection with the gall bladder
glio neuroglia, the supporting substance of the nervous system
kerato cornea, or horny tissue
metra, metro uterus
myelo bone marrow or spinal cord
myringo eardrum
Oophoro ovary
orchio, orchi, orchid testicle
Os latin for bone, also a term for mouth or any orifice of the body
salplingo fallopian tube or eustachian tube
-centesis puncture, perforate
-clas smash, break
-duct draw
-dynia pain
-edema swell
-geno -genesis produce, origin
-lysis breaking up, dissolving
morph, morpho form
-pep digest
-phag -phago eat
-phas speak, utter
-plas form, grow
-plegia paralyze
-pne -pneo breath
-poie make
-rrhea flow, discharge
-scope examine
-stasis stop, stand still
-staxis drop
-therap treat, cure
-troph -tropho nourish
-cryto hidden, concealed
-diplo double, twice
dys difficult, bad, disordered, painful
gravid heavy
hydro- wet, water
iso- equal
leio- smooth
mal bad
megalo- huge
meso- middle, mid
multi- many, much
necro- dead
neo- new
ortho- straight, normal, correct
pleo- more
poly- many, much
pseudo- false, spurious
sclero- hard
steno- narrow
xero- dry
A/an without
ad up, toward, near to
anti against, opposed to, reversed
bi twice, double
cata down, under, lower, against
com, con with, together
contra against, opposite
dia between, through, apart, across, completely
dis reversal, apart from, separation
E, ex out,away from
ec out from
ecto on outer side, situated on
em, en in
endo within
epi upon, on
exo upon, on, outside, on outer side, outer layer
extra outside
hyper excessive, over, above
hypo under, below, deficent
infra below
inter between
meta beyond, after, change
para beside, beyond, near to
per through, excessive
post after, behind
pre, pro before, in front of
sub under
supra above, upon
trans across, through, beyond
append appendix: blind pouch
arterio artery (carrying blood away from heart)
arthro joint
cardio heart
cholecysto gallbladder
colo large intestine
cranio skull
encephalo brain
gastro stomach
laparo abdominal wall
leuko white
myelo spinal cord, bone marrow
thoraco chest or rib cage
tracheo windpipe
ectomy to remove part of
emia blood
esthesia without feeling
graph the machine
graphy the process
orrhaphy surgical repair
ostomy to make an opening
pexy to anchor or fixate
plasty revision, surgical molding of tissue
abd abdomen
ad lib as desired
amb ambulatory
BM bowel movement
BP or B/P blood pressure
BRP bathroom privilege
ca cancer, calcium
C/O complains of
DC, dc discontinue
Dx diagnosis
ER emergency room
Fx fracture
GU genitourinary
Hgb, Hb hemoglobin
I & O intake and output
K potassium
Noc night
NPO nothing by mouth
O orally
PO orally
PRN when necessary
SSE soap suds anemia
UA urinalysis
AM before noon
H hour
HS hour of sleep
MN midnight
QD everyday
QID 4 times a day
BID twice a day
TID three times a day
aa of each
a.c. before meals
cap capsule
elix elixir
ID intradermal
IM intra muscular
IV intravenous
OD right eye
OS left eye
OU both eyes
p.c. after meals
pp post prandial (after eating)
amylo starch
glyco sugar
litho stone
sebum secretion of sebaceous glands
chyle latin for juice, milky fluid consisting of lymph and fats
albus latin for white
cyano blue
cirrhos orange-yellow
melano black
erythro red
leuko white
ruber latin for red
xantho yellow
Created by: byeaton462
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