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Biology Chapter 45

community Assemblage of species interacting with one another within the same environment.
species richness Number of species in a community.
species diversity Variety of species that make up a community.
island biogeography model Proposes that the biodiversity on an island is dependent on its distance from the mainland, with islands located a greater distance having a lower level of diversity.
habitat Place where an organism lives and is able to survive and reproduce.
ecological niche Role an organism plays in its community, including its habitat and its interactions with other organisms.
Abiotic Factors Nonliving examples: Climate, Habitat
Biotic Factors Living examples: competitors, parasites, and predators
competitive exclusion principle Theory that no two species can occupy the same niche in the same place and at the same time.
resource partitioning Mechanism that increases the number of niches by apportioning the supply of a resource, such as food or living space, between species.
character displacement Tendency for character-istics to be more divergent when similar species belong to the same community than when they are isolated from one another.
predation Interaction in which one organism (the predator) uses another (the prey) as a food source.
predator Organism that practices predation.
prey Organism that provides nourishment for a predator.
camouflage Process of hiding from predators in which an organism’s behavior, form, and pattern of coloration allow it to blend into the background and prevent detection.
mimicry Superficial resemblance of two or more species; a survival mechanism that avoids predation by appearing to be noxious.
symbiosis Relationship that occurs when two different species live together in a unique way; it may be beneficial, neutral, or detrimental to one or both species.
parasitism Symbiotic relationship in which one species (the parasite benefits in terms of growth and reproduction to the detriment of the other species (the host).
parasite Species that is dependent on a host species for survival, usually to the detriment of the host species.
host Organism that provides nourishment and/or shelter for a parasite.
commensalism Symbiotic relationship in which one species is benefited, and the other is neither harmed nor benefited.
mutualism Symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit in terms of growth and reproduction.
coevolution Mutual evolution in which two species exert selective pressures on the other species.
ecosystem Biological community together with the associated abiotic environment; characterized by a flow of energy and a cycling of inorganic nutrients.
autotroph Organism that can capture energy and synthesize organic molecules from inorganic nutrients.
producer Photosynthetic organism at the start of a grazing food chain that makes its own food—e.g., green plants on land and algae in water.
heterotroph Organism that cannot synthesize needed organic compounds from inorganic substances and therefore must take in organic food
consumer Organism that feeds on another organism in a food chain generally; primary consumers eat plants, and secondary consumers eat animals.
herbivore Primary consumer in a grazing food chain; a plant eater.
carnivore Consumer in a food chain that eats other animals.
omnivore Organism in a food chain that feeds on both plants and animals.
detritivore Any organism that obtains most of its nutrients from the detritus in an ecosystem.
decomposer Organism, usually a bacterium or fungus, that breaks down organic matter into inorganic nutrients that can be recycled in the environment.
food web In ecosystems, a complex pattern of interlocking and crisscrossing food chains.
food chain The order in which one population feeds on another in an ecosystem, thereby showing the flow of energy from a detritivore (detrital food chain) or a producer (grazing food chain) to the final consumer.
trophic level Feeding level of one or more populations in a food web
ecological pyramid Visual depiction of the biomass, number of organisms, or energy content of various trophic levels in a food web—from the producer to the final consumer populations.
Fundamental Niche All conditions under which organisms can survive.
Realized Niche Set of conditions under which it exists in nature (predators, competition,etc)
Batesian mimicry Mimicry lacks defense of the orgainsm it resembles.
Mullrian mimicry Mimic shares a protective defense with other species.
Created by: Haleyannestes
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