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Grade 9 Earth and Environmental Science final exam study guide from many sources

What is Earth Science? the science that focuses on planet Earth and its place in the universe
What is geology? rocks and the structure of the earth
What is oceanology? The study of the Earth's oceans
What is meteorology? the scientific study of climate and weather patterns
What is astronomy? the study of the moon, stars, and other objects in space
What is the atmosphere? the envelope of gases surrounding any celestial body
What is the core? the central part of the Earth
What is the mantle? the layer of the earth between the crust and the core
What is the crust? the outer layer of the Earth
What is a topographic map? a map that shows the surface features of an area, shows surface features of an area such as mountains, valleys, plains, and plateaus by using contour lines to show changes in elevation
What are contour lines? lines that show elevation, relief and slope on a topographic map
What is an element? a pure substance made of only one kind of atom
What is an atomic number? the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
What is a mineral? a naturally occurring, inorganic solid that has a crystal structure and a definite chemical composition
What is a streak? the color of a mineral's powder
What is luster? the way in which a mineral reflects light
Mohl's scale is? a scale ranking ten minerals from softest to hardest; used in testing the hardness of minerals
What is cleavage? A mineral's ability to split easily along flat surfaces
What does it mean to fracture? break into pieces
What is density? the degree of compactness of a substance
What is igneous rock? A type of rock that forms from the cooling of molten rock at or below the surface
Sedimentary Rock is? A type of rock that forms when particles from other rocks or the remains of plants and animals are pressed and cemented together
What is metamorphic rock? A type of rock that forms from an existing rock that is changed by heat, pressure, or chemical reactions
What is the rock cycle? a series of processes on the surface and inside Earth that slowly changes rocks from one kind to another
What is magma? molten rock beneath the Earth's surface
What is lava? magma that reaches the earth's surface
What is weathering? The breaking down of rocks and other materials on the Earth's surface.
What is intrusive igneous rock? Are formed slowly by magma below the surface of the earth. They will be coarse grained, as they take longer to cool, so their crystals will be larger. (Intrusive-> Inside)
What is extrusive igneous rock? Are formed by lava above the surface of the earth. They will be fine-grained, as their crystals cool very quickly above ground. (Extrusive-> Expel)
What is erosion? condition in which the earth's surface is worn away by the action of water and wind
What is deposition? Process in which sediment is laid down in new locations
What is a renewable resource? any natural resource (as wood or solar energy) that can be replenished naturally with the passage of time
What is a nonrenewable resource? a resource that cannot be reused or replaced easily (ex. gems, iron, copper, fossil fuels)
What is a fossil fuel? a nonrenewable energy resource formed from the remains of organisms that lived long ago; examples include oil, coal, and natural gas
What does hydroelectric mean? Electricity generated by flowing water
What is geothermal energy? energy derived from the heat in the interior of the earth
What is global warming? an increase in the average temperature of the earth's atmosphere (especially a sustained increase that causes climatic changes)
What is recycling? the act of processing used or abandoned materials for use in creating new products
What is conservation? protection of natural resources
What is compost? mixture of decaying organic matter used as fertilizer; V: put or make compost
What is the water cycle? The continuous movement of water from the ocean to the atmosphere to the land and back to the ocean
What is the zone of saturation? The lower zone where water accumulates between small rock particles.
What is porosity? the property of being porous
What is permeability? ability of rock or soil to allow water to flow through it
What is an aquifer? An underground formation that contains groundwater
What is an Ice Age? Period of time when huge sheets of ice covered much of the earth's land, formed from ocean water, leaving ocean levels lower than they are now which exposed dry land that connected the continents.
What is an earthquake? shaking and vibration at the surface of the earth resulting from underground movement along a fault plane of from volcanic activity
What is an epicenter? the point on the Earth's surface directly above the focus of an earthquake
What is a seismograph? a measuring instrument for detecting and measuring the intensity and direction and duration of movements of the ground (as an earthquake)
Tsunamis are what? a huge destructive wave (especially one caused by an earthquake)
What is continental drift? the gradual movement and formation of continents (as described by plate tectonics)
What is Pangaea? the super continent where all the continents were once joined
What is Plate Tectonics? a theory stating that the earth's surface is broken into plates that move
What is a hot spot? an area where magma from deep within the mantle melts through the crust above it
What is a volcano? Mountains built from magma that rises from the Earth's interior to the surface.
What is a vent? Mountains built from magma that rises from the Earth's interior to the surface.
What is a Strike-slip Fault? a type of fault where rocks on either side move past each other sideways with little up or down motion
What is radiocarbon dating? a scientific method for determining the age of once living things by measuring the amount of carbon 14 remaining
What is radiocarbon dating? the process of measuring the absolute age of geologic material by measuring the concentrations of radioactive isotopes and their decay products
What is a mammal? a warm-blooded vertebrate with hair or fur and females produce milk to feed their young
What is Sonar? a measuring instrument that sends out an acoustic pulse in water and measures distances in terms of the time for the echo of the pulse to return
What is Seafloor Spreading? The process that creates new sea floor as plates move away from each other at the mid-ocean ridges
What is salinity? a measure of the amount of dissolved salts in a given amount of liquid
What is photosynthesis? process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches
What is a food chain? (ecology) a community of organisms where each member is eaten in turn by another member
What is a wave height? the vertical distance from the crest of a wave to the trough
What is a wave length? the length from one crest to another
What is a tide? the periodic rise and fall of the sea level under the gravitational pull of the moon
What is ozone? a form of oxygen that has three oxygen atoms in each molecule instead of two. protects us from dangerous ultraviolet radiation from the sun
What is the Greenhouse Effect? natural situation in which heat is retained in Earth's atmosphere by carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and other gases
What is the Summer Solstice? -June 21st -Sun farthest north -longest day of the year -highest in the sky (if in northern hemisphere)
What is the Winter Solstice? -Dec. 1st -Sun farthest south -shortest day -lowest in the sky
What is the Autumnal Equinox? September 22-23, sun is directly overhead the equator at noon, 12 hour daylight/12 hour night, first day of fall, sun's rays most directly strike the equator, Earth's tilt points at right angle to the sun
What is the Spring Equinox? March 20th or 21st in the Northern Hemisphere, when both hemispheres receive 12 hours of daylight and 12 hours of darkness
What is precipitation? Rain, snow, sleet, or hail that falls to the ground
What is evaporation? the process by which water changes from liquid form to an atmospheric gas
What is condensation? the process by which water changes from liquid form to an atmospheric gas
What is humidity? the amount of moisture in the air
What is a dew point? The temperature at which condensation begins
What is a front? The boundary between two air masses
What is a jet stream? a high-speed high-altitude airstream blowing from west to east near the top of the troposphere
What are trade winds? Prevailing winds that blow northeast from 30 degrees north latitude to the equator and that blow southeast from 30 degrees south latitude to the equator
What is a tornado? a rapidly whirling, funnel-shaped cloud that reaches down from a storm cloud to touch Earth's surface
What is a hurricane? tropical storm with violent wind and heavy rain
What is a tropical zone? warm climate zone that receives direct or nearly direct sunlight year round
What is a temperate zone? moderate climate zone between the polar zones and the tropics
What is a polar zone? cold climate zone where the sun's rays strike Earth at a very low angle
What is a rotation? spinning of Earth on its imaginary axis, which takes about 24 hours to complete and causes day and night to occur
What is a revolution? Earth's yearly orbit around the Sun
What is a solar eclipse? Occurs when the Moon passes directly between the Sun and Earth and casts a shadow over part of Earth
What is a lunar eclipse? the blocking of sunlight to the moon that occurs when earth is directly between the sun and the moon
What are the phases of the moon? New Moon, Waxing Crescent, First Quarter, Waxing Gibbous, Full Moon, Waning Gibbous, Third Quarter, Waning Crescent
What is an asteroid? a piece of rock or metal made up of material similar to that which formed the planets; mostly found in the asteroid belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter
What is a comet? a ball of frozen dust and rock that orbits the sun and has a tail that glows
What is a meteor? A streak of light in the sky produced by the burning of a meteoroid in Earth's atmosphere.
What is a sunspot? a cooler darker spot appearing periodically on the sun's photosphere
What is a constellation? A group of stars that form a pattern in the sky
What is the Big Bang Theory? the theory that the universe originated 20 billion years ago from the cataclysmic explosion of a small mass of matter at extremely high density and temperature
What is a galaxy? A large group of stars, nebulas, gases, dust particles and planets held together by gravity.
What is a Black Hole? a region of space resulting from the collapse of a star
Created by: Alia Cherrywood