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Science 8 Disease

NC Science 8 Standards for 8.L.1

What is microbiology? the study of microorganisms
What is a microorganism? A small living plant or animal seen only with a microscope; a microbe
What is bacteria? A member of a large group of unicellular microorganisms lacking organelles and an organized nucleus, including some that can cause disease.
What is a bacilli? rod-shaped bacteria
What is a cocci? spherical or nearly spherical bacteria
What are spirilla? any flagellated aerobic bacteria having a spirally twisted rodlike form
Define unicellular one-celled
What is a cell's capsule? A sticky layer that surrounds the cell walls of some bacteria, protecting the cell surface and sometimes helping to glue the cell to surfaces.
What is a prokaryote? a unicellular organism having cells lacking membrane-bound nuclei
What is a eukaryote? A cell that contains a nucleus and membrane bound organelles
What are archaebacteria? a kingdom made up of prokaryotes that are distinguished from other prokaryotes by differences in their genetics and in the makeup of their cell wall; currently, biologists prefer to classify members of this kingdom into the domain Archaea
What are cyanobacteria? predominantly photosynthetic prokaryotic organisms containing a blue pigment in addition to chlorophyll
What is chlorophyll? A green pigment found in the chloroplasts of plants, algae, and some bacteria
What is photosynthesis? Plants use the sun's energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars
What is chemosynthesis? A process by which some organisms use chemical energy instead of light energy to make energy storing carbon-based molecules.
What is a vaccine? immunogen consisting of a suspension of weakened or dead pathogenic cells injected in order to stimulate the production of antibodies
What is an antibiotic? A chemical secreted by a living organism that kills or reduces the reproduction rate of other organisms
What is Lyme Disease? An infection transmitted by the bite of an infected tick; red macule or papule appears at the bite site and is accompanied by flulike symptoms
What is strep throat? Inflammatory sore throat caused by steptococcal bacteria and marked by fever, fatigue, and toxemia.
What is pneumonia? Inflammation in the lung caused by infection from bacteria, fungi, parasites, viruses, or resulting from aspiration of chemicals
What is Botulism? A type of food poisoning caused by the production of the bacteria Clostridium botulinum in improperly canned foods. It often results in death.
What is an endospore? A thick-walled protective spore that forms inside a bacterial cell and resists harsh conditions.
What is a saprophyte? an organism that feeds on dead organic matter especially a fungus or bacterium
What are aerobes? an organism especially a bacterium that requires air or free oxygen for life
What is an anaerobe? Bacteria that grow in the absence of oxygen and are destroyed by oxygen
What is fission? reproduction of some unicellular organisms by division of the cell into two more or less equal parts
What is a pathogen? any disease-producing agent (especially a virus or bacterium or other microorganism)
What is an autotroph? plant capable of synthesizing its own food from simple organic substances
What is a heterotroph? an organism that cannot make its own food
What are nitrogen-fixing bacteria? bacteria that "infect" plants and cause the plant to grow nodules that are capable of synthesizing nitrogen into a form the plant can use
What is an extremophile? An organism capable of tolerating extreme environmental conditions, especially temperature or PH level.
What is leprosy? A skin and nerve disease that causes open sores on the body and can lead to serious complications and death
What is eutrophication? A process by which nutrients, particularly phosphorus and nitrogen, become highly concentrated in a body of water, leading to increased growth of organisms such as algae or cyanobacteria.
What are microbiologists? a scientist that studies microscopic organisms
What are toxins? Any of various poisonous substances produced by some microorganisms
What is pasteurization? partial sterilization of foods at a temperature that destroys harmful microorganisms without major changes in the chemistry of the food
What is bioremediation? the act of treating waste or pollutants by the use of microorganisms (as bacteria) that can break down the undesirable substances
What is a vector? FLEA, MICE, OTHER RODENTS, AND SOIL. Any non-human carrier of disease.
Created by: Alia Cherrywood
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