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chap 9 & 10

chromosomes v chromatin some: threadlike, gene-carrying structure found in nucleus. Each has long DNA molecule & protein tin:The complex of DNA & proteins make up chromosome When the cell isn't dividing, it exists as mass of long, thin fibers that aren't seen w/light microscope
what is the cell cycle? An ordered sequence of events in the life of a dividing eukaryotic cell, composed of the M, G1, S, and G2 phases.
the genome of an organism is defined by a complete set of organism genes
somatic cells v gametes somatic-Any cell in a multicellular organism except a sperm or egg cell gamete-A haploid egg or sperm cell; gametes unite during sexual reproduction to produce a diploid zygote.
what are sister chromatids? how are they held together? Replicated forms of a chromosome joined together by the centromere & eventually separated during mitosis or meiosis II.
what is a centromere? how many does a replicated chromosome have? unreplicated? -The centralized region joining two sister chromatids, centromere is the region in the middle of each chromosome, replicated 2, i replicated 1
what is the separating point that determines whether you call a replicated chromosomes, chromatids or chromosomes? chromatid is half of chromosome
which parts of the cell cycle includes mitosis? in mitotic (m) phase (prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, & telophase)
is cytokinesis in mitosis? Cytokinesis is part of M-phase, but not part of Mitosis. *M-phase consists of nuclear division (mitosis) & cytoplasmic division (cytokinesis)
cell cycle events Interphase:G1 (first gap, grows), S (synthesis,grows and copies chromosomes), G2 (second gap, prep for division) & M (divides genetic material in nucleus), C(cytoplasm divides)
purpose of mitotic spindle in cell division? what is it made of? where is from? Spindle fibers form protein structure that divides genetic material in cell. used to divide chromosomes in parental cell into 2 daughter cells during 2 types of nuclear division: mitosis & meiosis form in cytoplasm(prophase),composed of microtubules
aster, what does it include? a radial array of short microtubules that extends from each centrosome
what is the function of kinetochore? where is it located? anchoring of chromosomes to MTs in the spindle, verification of anchoring, activation of the spindle checkpoint & participation in force generation to propel chromosome movement during division located in or near the centromere
kinetochore microtubules v polar microtubules Chromosomes are attached to kinetochore microtubules via a multiprotein complex called the kinetochore. Polar microtubules intersect @ spindle midzone & push spindle poles apart via motor proteins.
function of enzyme separase cleaves chromosome in anaphase
hypothesis: chromosomes moved to opposite side of cell move to diff sides cuz spindle fibers
cytokinesis: plant v animal cells (cleavage, cleavage furrow,actin filaments, golgi apparatus,cell plate,cell wall) Animal cells divide by a cleavage furrow(shallow groove in cell surface near old metaphase plate) Plant cells divide by a cell plate that eventually becomes the cell wall. cytokinesis occurs by process called cleavage
how do bacteria divide? what is the origin of replication? Bacteria reproduce by binary fission. In this process the bacterium,(single cell), divides into 2 identical daughter cells. origin of replication
what drives the cell cycle? cyclins
analogy: washing machine & cell cycle washing machine functions in stages: it takes water, mixes it w/ detergent, washes clothes, rinses them, & spins dry. These processes of the wash cycle are analogous to the essential processes of the cell cycle—DNA replication, mitosis, and so on
3 major checkpoints, which is most important? The integrity of DNA is assessed at the G1 checkpoint. Proper chromosome duplication is assessed at the G2 checkpoint. Attachment of each kinetochore to a spindle fiber is assessed at the M checkpoint.
what may cause cell to enter G0 phase? when cells reach their final mature state, they don't need to divide again. The cells leave G1 and enter an alternative state called G0 where they stop dividing permanently*Neurons & red blood cells are examples of terminally differentiated cells.
growth factor -protein released by certain cells that stimulate other cells to divide
anchorage dependency v density dependence inhibition anchorage-most animal cells must be in contact with a solid (substratum)surface in order to divide density- If a cell is crowded it will not divide. Cells will stop dividing when they are in contact with others cells.
cancer cells v non cancerous cells don't regulate @ normal signals, divide excessively & invade other tissues
transformation process that converts a normal cell to a cancer cell
apoptosis the death of cells that occurs as a normal and controlled part of an organism's growth or development
benign v malignant tumor benign: non harmful, at site no genetic and cellular change malignant: bad, spreads to tissues and impairs functions
besides excessive proliferation, what other ways may change in malignant cells show up? unusual numbers of chromosomes, metabolism may be disabled
genes coded info in form of heriditary units
locus a genes specific location along length of chromsome
asexual v sexual reproduction asexual-single individual in sole parent & passes copies of all genes to offspring w/o fusion of gametes sexual-2 parents giver offspring that have unique combination of gene inherited from 2 parents
karyotype the number and visual appearance of the chromosomes in the cell nuclei of an organism or species.
homologous chromosomes Chromosome pairs of the same length, centromere position, and staining pattern that possess genes for the same characters at corresponding loci. One homologous chromosome is inherited from the organism's father, the other from mother.
sex chromosomes v autosomes autosomes-A chromosome that is not directly involved in determining sex, as opposed to the sex chromosomes.
diploid v haploid diploid-A cell containing two sets of chromosomes (2n), one set inherited from each parent. haploid-A cell containing only one set of chromosomes (n).
zygote The diploid product of the union of haploid gametes in conception; a fertilized egg.
germ cells Gametes or the cells that give rise to gametes.
animal v plants v fungi life cycles plant have spores and gametophytes and animals dont
alteration of genes plants and species of algae, both diploid and haploid stages that are multicellular
3 events unique to meiosis Synapsis & crossing over. -During prophase 1, duplicated homologs pair up & formation of synaptonemal complex between them holds them in synapsis Homologous pairs at the metaphase plate. Seperation of homologs.
how do independent assortment, crossing over, & random fertilization lead to variation among offspring? co-sections of dna on 2 chromosomes r cut out, then switch over to opposite chromosome rf-sperm and egg
disadvantages of sexual reproduction Slower reproduction rate Less reliable reproduction Takes time and energy to find mate
recombinant chromosomes A DNA molecule made in vitro with segments from different sources.
reductional division v equational division Because the ploidy is reduced from diploid to haploid, meiosis I is a reductional division. Meiosis II is an equational division analogous to mitosis, in which the sister chromatids are segregated, creating four haploid daughter cells
Created by: za18
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