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NUR304 Review

Review for NUR304

Causes of Postrenal Failure Renal Calculi (Kidney Stones), Enlarged Prostate, Neurogenic Bladder
Causes of Intrarenal Failure Glomerulonephritis, Vascular damage, Bilateral acute pyelonephritis, Renal structure damage (Nephrons)
Causes of Prerenal Failure Acute blood loss/hemorrhage, hypolovemia, hypotension
Postrenal consequences Urinary retention, pain, azotemia (increase in BUN & Creatine)__
Intrarenal consequences Oliguria, azotemia (increase in BUN & Creatine), hyperkalemia
Prerenal consequences Azotemia (increase in BUN & Creatine), parynchema damage if decreased perfusion to kidneys is prolonged
Ulcerative Collitis Chronic illness, inflammation of large intestine, episodic with bloody stools, develops psuedopolyps
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia clinical manifestations Increased frequency, feeling of incomplete bladder emptying, dribbling, decreased force of urine stream, difficulty initiating stream
Lower urinary tract infections causes Escherichia Coli (most common), wiping back to front, holding urine for long periods of time, not voiding after sex, tight synthetic underwear, bowel incontinence
Aldosterone Hormone that promotes sodium and water re-absorption and excretion of potassium
RAAS activation sequence Decreased renal blood flow causes Renin to be released which converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin I which is converted by angiotensin-converting enzyme to angiotensin II which causes vasoconstriction and stimulates the release of aldosterone
Hemoconcentration A ratio > 3 between the hemoglobin and hematocrit. Divide the hematocrit by the hemoglobin (HCT/Hgb)
Arterial end of capillary Increased Blood Pressure, Increased Hydrostatic Pressure, Decreased Oncotic Pressure
Venous end of capillary Decreased Blood Pressure, Decreased Hydrostatic Pressure, Increased Oncotic Pressure
Hydrostatic Pressure Pushes fluid out of the capillaries
Colloid Osmotic Pressure Pulls fluid into its compartments
Angiotensin-converting hormone In pulmonary vessels, Converts Angentensin I into Angiotensin II, Part of the RAAS
Hypercalcemia causes Hyperparathyroidism, bone metastases, excess vitamin D
Hypercalcemia clinical manifestations Kidney stones, dysrhythmias, bradycardia, bone pain, fatigue, weakness, lethargy, anorexia, nausea, constipation
Hypocalcemia causes Blood administration, Inadequate intestinal absorption, Vitamin D deficiency
Hypocalcemia clinical manifestations Increased neuromuscular excitability, tingling, muscle spasms, intestinal cramping, tetany, convulsions, arrhythmias, stridor
Hypermagnesemia causes Renal insufficiency / Failure, Excessive intake of magnesium-containing antacids, Adrenal insufficiency
Hypermagnesemia clinical manifestations Loss of deep tendon reflexes, Hypotension, Skeletal smooth muscle contraction, Excess nerve function, Nausea and vomiting, Muscle weakness
Hypomagnesemia causes Alcoholism, Malnutrition , Malabsorption syndromes, Urinary losses, Renal tubular dysfunction , Loop diuretics
Hypomagnesemia clinical manifestations Behavioral changes, Irritability, Increased reflexes, Muscle cramps, Ataxia, Nystagmus, Tetany, Convulsions , Tachycardia , Hypotension
Hyperkalemia causes Increased intake, Shift of K+ from ICF into ECF, Decreased renal excretion, Insulin deficiency, Cell trauma
Hyperkalemia clinical manifestations Peaked T waves, Muscle cramps, weakness, paralysis, hypotension, drowsiness, diarrhea, abdominal cramping
Hypokalemia causes Alcoholism, Reduced intake of potassium, Dietary deficiency of potassium, Diarrhea, Intestinal drainage tubes, Fistulae, Laxative abuse
Hypokalemia clinical manifestations Prominent U waves, Confusion, Constipation, Skeletal muscle weakness, Nausea & Vomiting, Anorexia, Paralytic ileus, Smooth muscle atony, Cardiac dysrhythmias, ST segment is depressed
Calcium Levels Normal Range 8.8 to 10.5 mg/dl
Magnesium Levels Normal Range 1.8 to 3.0 mEq/L
Potassium Levels Normal Range 3.5 to 5.0 mEq/L
Sodium Levels Normal Range 135 to 145 mEq/L
Hypernatremia causes Infusion of hypertonic saline solutions, Renal impairment, Heart failure, Gastrointestinal losses, Oversecretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or aldosterone, Cushing syndrome, Adrenal hyperplasia, Near salt water drowning
Hypernatremia clinical manifestations Bounding Pulse, Thirst, Weight gain, Increased blood pressure, Muscle twitching, Hyperreflexia, Confusion, Coma, Convulsions
Hyponatremia causes Compulsive water drinking, Loss of sodium, Inadequate sodium intake, Dilution of sodium by water excess
Hyponatermia clinical manifestations Headache, Pulmonary congestion, Presence of S3, Bounding pulse, Pitting edema, Increased blood pressure, Confusion
Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 Destruction of beta cells in pancreas, usually juvenile onset, commonly leads to hyperglycemia if not treated
Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Insulin resistance, usually adult onset__
Hyperglycemia Blood Glucose >110 mg/dL in a fasting state or >140 mg/dL when not fasting
Hypoglycemia Blood Glucose < 70 mg/dL
Diabetic Ketoacidosis Usually found in DM Type 1, slow onset of hyperglycemia, Kussmaul respirations develop, fruity or acetone odor to breath, lethargy, coma, blood glucose level required for severity of hyperglycemia
Hypoglycemia clinical manifestations Irritability, Headache, Shaking, Sweating, Feeling Tired, Weakness, Hunger, Clammy Skin, Skin cool to touch
Metabolic Syndrome Must have 3 of the following: Waist circumference> 40 inches Men or > 35 inches Women, Plasma triglycerides ≥ 150 mg/dl, HDL < 40 mg/dl for Men or < 50 mg/dl for Women, BP ≥ 130/85 mm Hg, Fasting plasma glucose ≥ 100 mg/dl
Hyperglycemia clinical manifestations Polyuria, Polydypsia, Polyphagia, Dehydration, Unexplained weight loss, Fatigue
Chain of Infection Infectious disease, Reservoir, Portal of exit, Mode of transmission, Portal of entry, Susceptible host,
Cystitis Bladder infection characterized by Urinary frequency, Dysuria, Suprapubic pain, and confusion (especially in the elderly), Urgency, Nocturia, Hematuria, Fever / Chills, Urethral Discharge (Males)
Glomerulonephritis Clinical manifestations are red blood cell casts, proteinuria, oliguria, nephrotic frost
Interstitial cystitis Non-infectious (negative urine cultures), No known cause, Most common in 20 to 30 year old women, Bladder fullness, Frequency, Small urine volume, non-curable
Acute Pyelonephritis Urgency, Frequency, Burning, Dysuria, Nocturia, Hematuria, Cloudy, Ammonia/fish odor, Temp ≥ 102°F (38.9°C), Chills, Flank Pain, Anorexia, General Fatigue
Viral Infection Labs Elevated lymphocytes and monocytes__
Parasitic Infection Labs Elevated monocytes and eosinophils__
Bacterial Infection Labs Elevated WBC and neutrophils
Health care-associated Pneumonia (HCAP) Pneumonia in recently hospitalized, residence in a nursing home or extended care facility, home infusion therapy, chronic dialysis, home wound care
Hospital acquired Pneumonia (HAP) Pneumonia acquired in a hospital and is currently hospitalized__
Community acquired Pneumonia (CAP) Most common reason for hospitalization__
Ventilator acquired Pneumonia (VAP) Nosocomial infection in intubated clients__
Created by: bolenr