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Chapter 2 vocabulary

Vocabulary

TermDefinition
Uniformitarianism The principle that states the geologic processes that operate today and the past.
Erosion Is the process of wearing down and carrying away rocks.
Weathering Is the process that breaks down rock and other substances.
Mechanical Weathering The type of weathering in which rock is physically broken into smaller pieces.
Chemical Weathering Is the process that breaks down rock though chemical changes.
Abrasion Refers to the wearing away of rock by rock particles carried away by water, ice, wind, or gravity.
Frost Wedging Wedges of ice in rocks widen and deepen cracks.
Oxidation Iron combines with oxygen in the presence of water.
Permeable Means that material is full of tiny, connected air spaces that allow water to seep through it.
Soil Is the loose weathered material on Earth's surface in which plants can grow.
BedRock Is the solid layer of rock beneath the soil.
Humus Decayed organic material in the soil.
Fertility Is a measure of how well the soil supports plant growth.
Loam Soil that is made up of about equal parts of clay, sand, and slit.
pH Scale Measures acidity.
Soil Horizon Is a layer of soil that differs in color, texture, and composition from the layers above or below it.
Topsoil A crumply, dark brown soil that is a mixture of humus, clay, and other minerals.
Subsoil Usually consists of clay and other particles of rock, but little humus.
Decomposers Are the organisms that break the remains of dead organisms into smaller pieces and digest them with chemicals.
Natural Resources Is anything in the environment that humans use.
Soil Conservation Is the management of soil to limit its destruction.
Crop Rotation A farmer plants different crops in each field each year.
Contour Plowing Farmers plow their fields along the curves of a slope instead of in straight rows.
Conservation Plowing Dead weeds and stalks of the previous year's crop are plowed into the ground to help return soil, nutrients, retain moisture , and hold soil in place.
Erosion The process by which natural forces move weathered rock and soil from one place to another.
Sediment The process of erosion moves materials.
Deposition Occurs where the agents of erosion deposit, or lay down, sediment.
Gravity Is the force that pulls you and your bike downward.
Mass Movement Landslides, mudflows, slumps, and creep.
Runoff As water moves over the land,
Rills Tiny grooves in the soil that carries water.
Gully Is a large groove or channel in the soil that carries runoff after a rain storm.
Stream Is a channel along which water is continually flowing down a slope.
Tributary Is a stream or river that flows into a larger river.
Flood Plain Flat, long area of land along a river.
Meander Is a loop-like bend in the course of a river.
Oxbow Lake Is a meander that has been cut off by the river.
Alluvial Fan Is a wide, sloping deposit of sediment formed where a stream leaves a mountain range.
`Delta Sediment deposited where a river flows into an ocean or lake builds up a landform.
Groundwater Is the term that geologists use for this this underground water.
Stalactite A deposit that hangs like an icicle from the roof of a cave.
Stalagmite Slow dripping builds up a cone-shaped ______ from the cave floor.
Karst Topography If the roof of a cave collapses because of the erosion of the underlying lime stone, the result is a depression called a sink-hole
Glacier Any large mass of ice.
Continental Glacier Is a glacier that covers much of a continent or large island.
Ice Age M
Created by: Kye Yoshi