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Psych part2

cell body soma, includes nucleus and mitochondria
dendrite where information comes into the cell, includes dendrites spines
Axon where the information travels or goes through,includes Myelin, nodes of Ranvier, axon terminals (terminal buttons)
Myelin fatty substance surrounding the Axon that speeds the ability of neurons to communicate with each other
Nodes of Ranvier exposed bits of Axon (in between myelin)
Schwann cells attach themselves to the Axon and as they grow, they completely coat the axon multiple times surrounding the axon (that is the myelin), insulate the axon for better electrical connections
(Axon) Presynaptic terminals where communication occurs, where information comes out of, connects to muscle
input zone dendrites, cell body
conducting zone axon, cell body, dendrites
output zone axon terminals
The law of forward conduction information travels through a neuron always in the same direction
Communicate by changes in rate of firing Nerve impulses are always of the same magnitude, the rate only changes
Neurons fire in all-or-none fashion Needs chemical changes at the axon pila to generate a nerve impulse, if there is no chemical change then there is no nerve impulse
membranes cell walls
Ions atoms or group of atoms that carry an electric charge
Gated ion channel sometimes open and sometimes closed, has the ability to close, stop and allow the flow of ions
Semi-permeable ion channel they will allow the passage of some ions and not others, the channel might be so small that large ions cannot get through
Electrostatic force ions of different electrical charge will want to go in the direction of their opposites
Diffusion force down a concentration gradient, “resting” potential because they are still waiting for their purpose but firing of neurons are still happening
Resting potential More negatively charged particles inside neuron and more positively charged particles outside neurons, an electrical polarization across the membrane of an axon
graded potential
action potential an excitation that travels along an axon at a constant strength, no matter how far it must travel
terminal bouton presynaptic ending
neurotransmitter a chemical that can activate receptors on other neurons
post-synapse neuron the neuron on the receiving end of the synapse
physiological explanation describes the mechanism that produces a behavior
evolutionary explanation relates behavior to the evolutionary history of the species
electroencephalograph (EEG) uses electrodes on the scalp to record rapid changes in brain electrical activity
magnetoencephalograph (MEG) records magnetic changes in the brain electrical activity
unexplained performance syndrome
positronemission tomography (PET) records radioactivity of various brain areas emitted from injected chemicals
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) uses magnetic detectors outside the head to compare the amounts of hemoglobin with and without oxygen in different brain areas
central nervous system consists of the brain and the spinal cord, communicates with the rest of the body through the peripheral nervous system
peripheral nervous system consists of bundles of nerves between the spinal cord and the rest of the body
autonomic nervous system the peripheral nerves that control the heart, stomach, and other internal organs (that are involuntary)
cerebral cortex outer covering of the forebrain
Gated ion channel sometimes open and sometimes closed, has the ability to close, stop and allow the flow of ions
Semi-permeable ion channel they will allow the pasage of some ions and not others, the channel might be so small that large ions cannot get through
Acetylcholine (Ach): released at skeletal muscles
Dopamine (DA): movement, attention, learning
Loss of dopamine Parkinson’s disease
Norepinephrine (NE): wakefulness
Serotonin (5-HT): eating, sleep, pain
Endogenous opioids (endorphin) (internally occurring) (morph like substances): analgesia, reinforcement, A long distance runner will release this early in a race so that their muscles do not hurt as much, Taste
Temporal lobe Auditory cortex, Aspects of emotion, Verbal comprehension (lateralized)
Occipital lobe Visual cortex
amygdala a subcortical structure deep within the temporal lobe, responds strongly to emotional situations
frontal lobe primary motor cortex, aspects of memory (planning), speech production (lateralized), evolutionary new piece of the brain, phineas gage, personality (maybe)
parietal lobe somatosensory cortex, specialized for the body sense (touch, pain, temperature, awareness of location of body parts in space) (phantom limbs)
somatosensory cortex awareness of location of body parts in space
prefrontal cortex anterior sections of the frontal lobe that contribute to certain aspects of memory and to the organization and planning of movements (decision making)
Cerebrum Rapid movement, Smooth movement, Parkinson’s disease can be found here iv. Timing
Created by: AnonymousTip