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chapter 5 bio

what is the function of cholesterol in membranes? plasma- for membrane synthesis & synthesis of other steroids, travels in blood
hypertonic when cells shrink, the concentration of solutes is greater outside the cell than inside of it
hypotonic when cells swell, the concentration of solutes is greater inside the cell than outside of it
isotonic when cell doesn't change size, in which the concentration of solutes is the same both inside and outside of the cell.
what is membrane potential? -the voltage across a membrane, acts like a battery an energy source that affects the traffic of all charged substances across the membrane (-50 to -200 mV) *Gradient of electrical potential energy across a cell membrane.
what do sodium potassium pumps do? - is an active transport process involving the hydrolysis of ATP to provide the necessary energy. *exchanges NA+ for K+ (ions) across the plasma membrane of animal cells
what is the electrochemical gradient? - chemical force (the ions' concentration gradient) & an electrical force (the effect of the membrane potential on the ions’ movement) acting on an ion *combo of forces acting on an ion
cotransport -a single ATP powered pump that transports specific solute can indirectly drive active transport of several other solutes in a mechanism *2 substances are transported across a membrane by a protein/complex & don't have ATPase activity *increase pH H+ion
what is the electrogenic pump? -a transport protein that generates voltage across a membrane
endocytosis & exocytosis endo-cell takes in molecules & particulate matter by forming new vesicles from plasma membrane exo-cell secreting certain biological molecules by fusion of vesicles w/ plasma membrane
what protein kinases does? -enzyme that transfers phosphate groups from ATP to a protein
specifics of phosphorylation cascades - sequence of events where an enzyme phosphorylates another, causing a chain reaction leading to phosphorylation of thousands of proteins.
which substances can most easily diffuse across the plasma membrane & which can't? -Water, oxygen(small&nonpolar),CO2(small) -proteins&sugars can't (charged ions & large molecules)
what is a transmembrane protein? Are peripheral proteins also considered transmembrane proteins, why? what about integral proteins? -an integral protein(penetrates the hydrophobic interior of lipid bilayer) in membrane -no, because they are not embedded in bilayer
what are 2 benefits of having multiple steps in a cell signaling transduction pathway? -amplifies signal -more opportunities for coordination & regulation
ligands -a molecule that specifically binds to another molecule, often a larger one
protein phosphatase -enzymes that rapidly remove phosphate groups from proteins, a process called dephsphorylation
second messangers -many signaling pathways also involve small, nonprotein, water-soluble molecules or ions
Created by: za18