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sense organs Part 1

(2) define stimulation any stimuli the body is aware of
(2) name 3 things we are not aware of AND why is this? x-rays, ultra high frequency sound waves, UV light BECAUSE we have no sensory receptors for those stimuli
(3) 6 types of sensations touch, pain, temperature, vibration, hearing, vision
(3)can a specific sensory neuron respond to multiple stimuli? No, they are specific
(3)how many sensory modalities are there? 2
(3) name the 2 sensory modalities general senses, specific senses
(3) what are your general senses somatic senses from body walls, visceral senses from internal organs
(3) what are special senses smell, taste, hearing, vision, balance
(4) a stimulation is transduced into a ...? graded potential
(4) will a sensation stimulus that turns into a graded potential typically propagate? NO, due to the leakage of sodium ions
(4) what happens when the graded potential reaches its threshold? it generates impulses
(4) all this sensory information is integrated where? The CNS
(5) are all sensory receptors the same structure? NO
(5) what are the 2 structures of sensory receptors? general and specific
(5) are general sensory receptors visceral? if not what are they? no, SOMATIC
(5) name 4 general sensory receptors that have NO structural specialization pain, tickle, itch, temperatures
(5) what general sensory receptors do have structural specializations touch, pressure, vibration
(5) which type of sensory receptors are complex (general OR Special) special sensory receptors
(5) Name 4 of these complex sensory receptors vision, hearing, taste, smell
(6) define what a RECEPTOR is any structure specialized to detect a stimulus
(6) are simple nerve endings, complex sense organ the two types of RECEPTORS yes
(6) Sensory receptors convert stimulus energy into ? electrochemical energy
(6) when you convert stimulus energy into electrochemical energy this process is called? sensory transduction
(6) what information about stimuli can be conveyed? 4 things modality or type, location, intensity, duration
(6) what organ in the body identifies the location if the stimuli the brain
(6) when the brain identifies the location of stimuli this process is called sensory projection
(6) in regards to intensity how does this relate to action potentials it has to do with the frequency of action potentials created
(6) in regards to intensity and fibers what is being measured the frequency and number of fibers, and what specific fibers
(6) change in firing sequence over time is related to which? (modality or type, location, intensity, duration) Duration
(6) What are the two types of duration receptors? phasic receptors, tonic receptors
(6) Define a Phasic receptor burst of activity and quikly adapt
(6) define Tonic receptor adapt slowly, generates impulses comtinually
(6) of the two duration receptors which adapts slowly and which adapts quickly? Phasic= quick , Tonic= slow
(6) Which duration receptor deals with smell and hair receptors? Phasic receptor
(6) which duration receptor is a proprioceptor? Tonic receptor
(6) define proprioceptor a sensory receptor that receives stimuli from within the body, especially one that responds to position and movement.
(8) What are the 4 ways we classify a sensory receptor (to determine what type of cell it is?) structural, type of response to stimulus, location of receptors and origin of stimuli, type of stimuli they detect
(9) the two types fo nerve endings free nerve endings , encapsulated nerve endings
(9) define free nerve endings (and what senses they relate bare dendrites, pain, temp, tickle, itch, light touch
(9) define encapsulated nerve endings ( and what senses they relate) dendrites enclosed in connective tissue capsule, Pressure, vibration, deep touch
(9)define dendrite a short branch extension of a nerve cell
(9) what cells deal with the special senses such as vision, taste, hearing, and balance separate sensory cells
(11) free nerve endings, encapsulated nerve endings and olfactory receptors all produce ______ potentials Generator
(11) when a generator potential is large enough it generates a ____ impulse in a ____ order neuron nerve, first
(11) what kind of a potential do vision, hearing, balance, and taste produce receptor potentials
(11) what does a receptor cell release on first order neurons neurotransmitter molecules
(11) once neurotransmitter molecules are released to first order neurons this produces _____ potentials postsynaptic
(11) PSP may trigger a _____ impulse nerve
(12) where do you find exteroceptors near the body surface
(12) what does an interoceptor monitor internal environment (BV or Viscera)
(12) what do proprioceptors sense body position and movement
(12) where do you find proprioceptors muscles, tendons, joints, and internal ear
(13) which receptors deal with detecting pressure or stretch mechanoreceptors
(13) which receptor detects temperature thermoreceptor
(13) which receptor detects tissue damage Nociceptors
(13) which receptor detects light photoreceptors
(13) which receptor detects molecules chemoreceptors (ie taste, smell, changes in body fluid chemistry)
(14) What are things that will happen a sensory receptor starts to decrease in responsiveness in regards to smells, and water temp bad smells dissapear, hot water only feels warm
(14) which are rapid adapting receptors? which are slow adapting? (smell, pressure, touch) (pain, body position) rapidly adapting: smell, pressure,touch //// slowly adapting: pain, body position
(15) define crude touch ability to perceive something has touched the skin
(15) define discriminative touch provides location and texture of the source
(15) match with proper definition: pressure, vibration, itching, tickle (A)repetitive sensory signals (B)stimulation of free nerve endings only by someone else (C)sustained sensation over a large area (D)chemical stimulation of free nerve endings Pressure-C Vibration-A Itching-D Tickle-B
(27) define referred pain misinterpreted pain.
(29) endogenous opiods do what to pain block it
(29) spinal gating stops pain signals at the ___ horn dorsal
(31) sensory info is sent to the ___ and ____ cortex cerebellum, cerebral
(34) pacinian corpuscles respond to ? acceleration and deceleration of joints
(34) ruffini corpuscles respond to ? pressure
(36) is smell more highly sensitive for women or men? Women
(39) adapation = (decreasing,increasing) sensitivity decreasing
(39) olfactory adaptation is rapid due to (sympathetic, parasympathetic) inhibition sympathetic
(39) olfactory adaptation decreases sensitivity by (25%, 50%) in 1 minute 50%
(42) define gustation the sensation of taste resulting from the action of chemicals on the taste buds
(42) name which lingual papillae have taste buds ? fungiform, vallate
(42) name which lingual papillae dont have taste buds filiform, foliate
(44) the 5 major taste sensations are salty, sweet, sour, bitter, umami
(45) what two nerves innervate taste buds on the tongue facial nerve XII (2/3), glossopharyngeal nerve IX (1/3)
(45) what nerve deals with the palate, pharynx, and epiglottis vagus nerve X
(47) perforated eardrum can be caused by? explosion, scuba diving, ear infection
(53) hearing comes from the inner or outer hair cells? inner
(57) does the tensor tympani pull the eardrum inward or outward inward (to tighten it)
(57) the stapedius (reduces , increases) the mobility of the stapes reduces
(58) sound is produced by vibration of ____ then vibration of ____ membrane under hair cells ossicles, basilar
(64) the auricle collects? sound waves
(64) the eardrum vibrates slow for ____ sounds and fast for ___ sounds low pitched, high pitched
(64) when a microvili is bent during hearing by sounds it produces an ? action potetial
(64) internal hair cells bend against the ? tectorial membrane
(69) you get a cochlear implant when you damage hair cells
(69) a cochlear implant electrically stimulates which nerve? vestibulochchlear nerve
(70) define nerve deafness damage to hair cells
(70) define conduction deafness a perforated eardrum, otosclerosis
(73) define static vs dynamic equillibrium static- balance when standing still. dynamic- balance while moving
(83) define conjunctiva mucous membrane lining the eyelids and anterior eyeball
(83) a conjunctiva is richly vascular meaning it heals? quickly
(89) the junction of the sclera and cornea is called the canal of schlemm
(90) the cilliary body(process) secretes the? aqueous humor
(91) the iris and pupils function is the regulate what the amount of light entering the eye
(92) radial vs smooth muscles of iris which is for (bright light, dim light) circular- bright light Radial- dim light
(95) the retina covers the posterior (1/2, 3/4) of the eyeball 3/4
(104) aqueous humor flows from posterior chamber tot eh anterior chamber through the ___ pupil
(104) aqueous humor continually produced by cilliary body
(104) glaucoma is a condition that could cause blindness due to a problem with pressure, problem with drainage of aqueous humor
(104) where does the aqueous humor drain to? the blood
(105) define refration bending of light as it passes from one substance to antoher
(106) at what angle or degrees is light not refracted 90 degrees
(105) what two parts parts of the eye deal with refraction of light as it enters the eye cornea and lens
(107) which refracts light more? cornea or lens (what percent also) cornea 75%
(109) when light passes through the lens it forms an ____ image inverted
(112) emmotropia vs convergence emmotropia- far sight thin lens convergence- close sight thick lens
(113) increase in curvature of the lens is called accomodation
(114) define near point closest distance from the eye an object can be and still be in clear focus
(114) define presbyopia it reduced accommodation as we get older (its why we need glasses)
(115) define emmetropic eye normal - can refract light form 20 ft away
(115) define myopia nearsighted , yeball is too long from front to back
(115) define hypermetropic farsighted , eyeball is too short
(115) an astigmatism corneal surface wavy, parts of image out of focus
(117) rods contain 1 opsin while cones contain 3 how does this directly affect the absorption of different colors of light? rods can absorb 1 color, cones can absorb 3
(118) the axons of ganglion cell form the ___ nerve optic
(118) bipolar cells, ganglion cells (which are 1st order neurons , which are 2nd order neurons?) bipolar=1st ganglion=2nd
(121) the visual pigment (opsin) in rod cells is called ? what color is it visually? rhodopsin , purple
(121) the 2 major parts to opsin molecule? protein called opsin and a vitamin A derivative called retinal
(121) the opsin that cones contain? photopsin
(123) pigmented epithelium has large amounts of vitamin ____ to help with the _____ process of photopigments A, regeneration
(123) do rods contribute much to daylight vision? this is due to? No, bleaching as fast as they can regenerate
(124) define light adaptation adjustments when emerge from dark into the light
(124) define dark adaptation adjustments when enter the dark from a bright solution
(124) which dark adaptation ... light sensitivity (increases,decreases) as photopigments regenerate increases
(129) convergence is when one cone cell synapses onto one _____ cell this produces best visual acuity bipolar
(129) horizontal cell enhance _____ in the visual scene because they laterally inhibit ___ cells in the are contrast, bipolar
(129) amacrine cells ____ bipolar cells if levels of illumination change excite
(130) visual info of the optic nerve travels to ____ for vision.// to ____ for controlling pupil size and coordination of head and eye movements///// to ____ to establish sleep patterns based on ____ rhythms of light and darkness occipital lobe, midbrain, hypothalamus, circadian
(131) define duplicity thory explains why we have both rods and cones, one for sensitive night vision the other for high resolution daytime vision
(132) the scotopic system is also known as night vision
(133) does the fovea contain rods, cones, or both only cone cells
(133) each foveal cone cell has a ______ line to the brain private
Created by: Daniel.wieck



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