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chapter 16

TermDefinition
Agricultural engineering the branch of engineering that deals with the design of farm machinery, the location and planning of farm structures, farm drainage, soil management and erosion control, water supply and irrigation, rural electrification, and the processing of farm .
Anaerobic digestion biological processes in which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen.
Artificial selection The breeding of plants and animals to produce desirable traits.
biochemical conversion involves use of enzymes, bacteria or other microorganisms to break down biomass into liquid fuels, and includes anaerobic digestion, and fermentation. 4. Chemical conversion involves use of chemical agents to convert biomass into liquid fuels.
Bioengineering the use of artificial tissues, organs, or organ components to replace damaged or absent parts of the body, such as artificial limbs and heart pacemakers.
Biomas the total mass of organisms in a given area or volume.
Biotechnology the exploitation of biological processes for industrial and other purposes, especially the genetic manipulation of microorganisms for the production of antibiotics, hormones, etc.
Cell smallest unit of life. Cells are often called the "building blocks of life".
Cell biology study of cell structures.
Cloning make an identical copy .
Combustion process of burning something .
Compost decayed organic material used as a plant fertilizer
Composting biochemical conversion process that involves creating piles of biomass and allowing the natural organisms to break down the biological composition of the material.
Crop yield measurement most often used for cereal, grain or legume and is normally measured in bushels or pounds per acre in the US (metric ton or kilogram per hectare outside the US).
DNA fingerprinting method used by forensic scientist to identify humans by their genetic makeup .
Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology that studies the evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on Earth, starting from a single common ancestor. These processes include natural selection, common descent, and speciation.
Fermentation the chemical breakdown of a substance by bacteria, yeasts, or other microorganisms, typically involving effervescence and the giving off of heat.
Gasification process that converts organic- or fossil fuel-based carbonaceous materials into carbon monoxide, hydrogen and carbon dioxide. This is achieved by reacting the material at high temperatures without combustion, with a controlled amount of oxygen and steam.
Gene a unit of heredity that is transferred from a parent to offspring and is held to determine some characteristic of the offspring.
Genetically engineered crop are plants used in agriculture, the DNA of which has been modified using genetic engineering methods.
Genetics the study of heredity and the variation of inherited characteristics.
Herbicides a substance that is toxic to plants and is used to destroy unwanted vegetation.
Homoostasis the tendency toward a relatively stable equilibrium between interdependent elements, especially as maintained by physiological processes.
Monoclonal antibodies that are made by identical immune cells that are all clones of a unique parent cell.
natural selection the process whereby organisms better adapted to their environment tend to survive and produce more offspring. The theory of its action was first fully expounded by Charles Darwin and is now believed to be the main process that brings about evolution.
Pyrolysis decomposition brought about by high temperatures.
thermochemical conversion application of heat and chemical processes in the production of energy products from biomass.
Created by: 311558