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Science Vocabulary

Science Vocabulary- Chapter 2

TermDefinition
Uniformitarianism this principle states that the geologic processes that operate today also operated in the past
Erosion is the process of wearing down and carrying away rocks
Weathering is the process that breaks down rock and other substances
Mechanical Weathering the type of weathering in which rock is physically broken into smaller pieces
Chemical Weathering is the process that breaks down rock through chemical changes
Abrasion refers to the wearing away of rock by rock particles carried by water, ice, wind, or gravity
Frost Wedging wedges of ice in rocks widen and deepen cracks
Oxidation iron combines with oxygen in the presence of water in a process called
Permeable means that a material is full of tiny, connected air spaces that allow water to seep through it
Soil is the loose, weathered material on Earth's surface in which plants can grow
Bedrock is the solid layer of rock beneath the soil
Humus is a dark-colored substance that forms as plant and animal remains decay
Fertility is a measure of how well the soil supports plant growth
Loam soil that is made up of about equal parts of clay, sand, and silt
pH Scale measures acidity
Soil Horizon is a layer of soil that differs in color, texture, and composition from the layers above or below it
Topsoil a crumbly, dark brown soil that is a mixture of humus, clay
Subsoil usually consists of clay and other particles of rock, but little humus
Decomposers are the organisms that break the remains or dead organisms into smaller pieces and digest them with chemicals
Natural Resource is anything in the environment that humans use
Soil Conservation is the management of soil to limit its destruction
Crop Rotation a farmer plants different crops in a field each year
Contour Plowing farmers plow their fields along the curves of a slope instead of in straight rows
Conservation Plowing dead weeds and stalks of the previous year's crop are plowed into the ground to help return soil nutrients, retain moisture, and hold soil in place
Created by: grace12345