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Ch2L 1-3 Vocab

Earth's Surface: Chapter 2 Lessons 1-3 Rocks and Weathering

Uniformitaranism A principal that states that the geologic processes that operate today also operated in the past.
Erosion The process of wearing down and carrying away rocks.
Weathering The process that breaks down rock and other substance.
Mechanical Weathering The type of weather in which rock is physically broken down into smaller pieces.
Chemical Weathering The process that breaks down rock through chemical challenges.
Abrasion Refers to the wearing away of rock by rock particles carried by water, ice, wind, or gravity.
Frost Wedging Wedges of ice in rocks widen and deepen cracks
Oxidation Iron combines with oxygen in the presence of water.
Premeable A material if full of tiny, connected air spaces that allow water to seep through it.
Soil The loose, weathered material on Earth's surface in which plants can grow.
Bedrock The solid layer of rock beneath the soil.
Humus A dark-colored substance that forms as plant and animal remains decay.
Fertility A measure of how well the soil supports plant growth.
Loam Soil that is made up of about equal parts of clay, sand, and slit.
pH scale Measures acidity.
Soil Horizon A layer of soil that differs in color, texture, and composition from the layers above or below it.
Topsoil A crumbly, dark brown soil that is a mixture of humus, clay, and other minerals.
Subsoil Consists if clay and other particles of rock, but little humus.
Decomposers The organisms that break the remains of dead organisms into smaller pieces and digest them with chemicals.
Natural Resource Anything in the environment that humans use.
Soil Conservation The management of soil to limit its destruction.
Crop Rotation A farmer plants different crops in a field each year.
Contour Plowing Farmers plow their fields along the curves of a slope instead of in straight rows.
Conservation Plowing Dead weeds and stalks of the previous year's crop are plowed into the ground to help return soil nutrients, retain moisture, and hold soil in place.