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IGHS Winkels

Biology Chapter 12

TermDefinition
transformation heat-killed bacteria passed their disease-causing ability to a harmless strain of bacteria
bacteriophage a virus that infects bacteria
nucleotide units that make up DNA
base pairing hydrogen bonds in DNA can form only between adenine and thymine and between guanine and cytosine
chromatin unwound DNA found in the nucleus of a cell
histone protein molecule around which DNA is tightly coiled in chromatin
replication copying process by which a cell duplicates its DNA
DNA polymerase enzyme involved in DNA replication that joins individual nucleotides to produce a DNA molecule
genes are coded DNA instructions that control the production of proteins within the cell
messenger RNA RNA molecule that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to the rest of the cell
ribosomal RNA type of RNA that makes up the major part of ribosomes
transfer RNA type of RNA molecule that transfers amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis
transcription process in which part of the nuleotide sequence of DNA is copied into complementary sequence in RNA
RNA polymerase enzyme similar to DNA polymerase that binds to DNA and separates the DNA and separates the DNA strands during transcription
promoter region of DNA that indicates to an enzyme where to bind to make RNA
intron sequence pf DNA that is not involved in coding for a protein
exon expressed sequence of DNA; codes for a protein
codon 3-nucleotide sequence on messenger RNA that codes for a single amino acid
translation decoding of a mRNA message into a polypeptide chain
anticodon group of 3 bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon
mutation change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information
point mutation gene mutation involving changes in one or a few nucleotides
frameshift mutation mutation that "shifts" the "reading" frame of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide
polyploidy the condition in which an organism has extra sets of chromosomes
operon a group of genes that operate together
operator region of chromosome in an operon to which the repressor binds when the operon is "turned off"
differentiation process in which cells become specialized in structure and function
hox genes series of genes that controls the differentiation of cells and tissues in an embryo
Created by: Winkels