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Mitosis & Meiosis

TermDefinition
Mitosis a type of cell division that results in two daughter cells each having the same number and kind of chromosomes as the parent nucleus, typical of ordinary tissue growth.
Diploid (number); the number of chromosomes present in the body cells of a diploid organism.
Chromosome(s); A structure in all living cells that consists of a single molecule of DNA bonded to various proteins and that carries the genes determining heredity.
Interphase; the resting phase between successive mitotic divisions of a cell, or between the first and second divisions of meiosis.
Crossing over; Crossing over occurs between prophase 1 and metaphase 1 and is the process where homologous chromosomes pair up with each other and exchange different segments of their genetic material to form recombinant chromosomes.
Anaphase; The stage of cell division in mitosis or meiosis in which the doubled set of chromosomes separates into two identical groups that move to opposite ends of the cell
Haploid/Monoploid; Having the same number of sets of chromosomes as a germ cell, or half the diploid number of a somatic cell.
Daughter nuclei daughter nuclei The nuclei that result from the division of a single nucleus.
Tetrad A four-part structure that forms during the prophase of meiosis and consists of two homologous chromosomes, each composed of two sister chromatids.
Gametogenesis; the process in which cells undergo meiosis to form gametes.
Meiosis Meiosis is the process by which the nucleus divides in all sexually reproducing organisms during the production of spores or gametes.
Metaphase the second stage of cell division, between prophase and anaphase, during which the chromosomes become attached to the spindle fibers.
Cytokinesis Cytokinesis is the physical process of cell division, which divides the cytoplasm of a parental cell into two daughter cells
Disjunction Disjunction normally occurs during the anaphase of mitosis and meiosis (I and II). ... In meiosis, disjunction happens when homologous chromosomes move apart toward the opposite poles of the cell in anaphase
Variation; difference between cells, individual organisms, or groups of organisms of any species caused either by genetic differences (genotypic variation) or by the effect of environmental factors on the expression of the genetic potentials (phenotypic variation).
Telophase the final phase of cell division, between anaphase and interphase, in which the chromatids or chromosomes move to opposite ends of the cell and two nuclei are formed.
Synapsis is the pairing of two homologous chromosomes that occurs during meiosis. It allows matching-up of homologous pairs prior to their segregation, and possible chromosomal crossover between them.
Prophase the first stage of cell division, before metaphase, during which the chromosomes become visible as paired chromatids and the nuclear envelope disappears.
Centrioles; a minute cylindrical organelle near the nucleus in animal cells, occurring in pairs and involved in the development of spindle fibers in cell division
Created by: amiliaboot