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MOLECULAR GENETICS

Vocabulary Goal 11

TermDefinition
Central Dogma (of genetics) the idea that certain portions of DNA code for different proteins through the processes of transcription and translation
Protein Folding the chemical process by which a protein takes its intended form
Primary order of amino acids in a protein
Secondary alpha helix or beta pleated sheet folding as amino acid chain emerges from the ribosome
Tertiary folding of the alpha helix or beta pleated sheet to protect hydrophobic sections, expose hydrophilic sections, and formation of di-sulfide bridges
Quaternary a complex of two or more tertiary proteins
Transcription a part of protein synthesis in which a portion of DNA is used to form messenger RNA. (The first process in protein synthesis.)
Translation a portion of protein synthesis in which messenger RNA is used to link together amino acids into full sized proteins. (The second process in protein synthesis)
Replication the process by which a strand of DNA is duplicated into an identical copy; often in preparation for cellular division
Codon a sequence of three nitrogenous bases that corresponds to a specific amino acid
Amino Acid the building block (monomer) of a protein
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid, molecule that carries genetic information for nearly all organisms
RNA ribonucleic acid, a molecule present in most living cells that helps in the process of protein synthesis
Substitution a mutation occurring in nucleic acids in which one nitrogenous base is "swapped" for another
Frameshift occurring in nucleic acids, mutations that cause all bases that follow the mutation to no longer match up (examples are deletions and insertions).
Deletion a mutation occurring in nucleic acids in which one nitrogenous base is removed from a sequence of bases
Insertion a mutation occurring in nucleic acids in which a nitrogenous base is added into a sequence of bases
Enzyme a type of protein present in all cells that helps to act as a biological catalyst for cellular reactions
Active Site a region, located on an enzyme, that helps the enzyme bind to a protein or other cellular structure
Substrate the substance on which an enzyme acts
Created by: INSIDERART