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INHERITANCE VOCAB

Goal 10 Vocab

TermDefinition
Gene sequence of DNA that codes for an organism's traits.
Chromosome Supercoiled DNA packaged for mitosis or meiosis.
Homologous A pair of chromosomes in which one chromosome is from the mother and one chromosome is from the father.
Sister chromatid refers to the identical copies formed by the replication of a chromosome.
Incomplete dominance one allele is not completely dominant over another, resulting in a phenotype that is a blending of traits.
Codominance both alleles of a gene are visible in the phenotype of the organism.
Multiple alleles three or more alleles for the same gene.
Sex-linked genes located on the sex chromosomes X or Y(pair #23).
Polygenic the determination of a particular characteristic, e.g. height or skin color, by many genes.
Autosomes all chromosomes excluding the sex chromosomes (pairs #1-22).
Meiosis the reduction division process when haploid (n) gametes are formed.
Gamete a reproductive (sex) cell; egg and sperm.
Pedigree a chart showing a family lineage; used to track a genetic disorder within a family.
Karyotype a picture of chromosomes arranged in their homologous pairs.
Mutation a permanent, heritable change in the nucleotide sequence in a gene or a chromosome.
Nondisjunction sister chromatids fail to separate during meiosis causing abnormal numbers of chromosomes in gametes.
Recombination genes on homologous chromosomes are recombined to produce organisms with new gene combinations
Crossing Over The chromatids break into segments (of matching regions), which are then exchanged with one another.
Genotype genetic makeup of an organism represented by letters (Hh) in a Punnett square.
Phenotype physical characteristics of an organism. Ex: blue eyes
Haploid (n) single copy of chromosome set
Diploid (2n) two copies of the chromosome set
Homozygous identical pairs of alleles for the same trait. Ex: HH or hh
Heterozygous two different alleles for the same trait. Ex: Hh
Created by: INSIDERART