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Exam #3

Biol 232

These plants have xylem & phloem for transport vascular plants
Nonvascular plants are called what? bryophytes
Which plant species belongs to the phylum Hepatophyta ? Liverworts
Which plant species belongs to the phylum Anthocerophyta ? Hornworts
Which plant species belongs to the phylum Bryophyta ? Mosses
These plants can have seeds and also be seedless vascular plants
Club mosses and their relatives are known as this: lycophytes
Ferns and their relatives are known as this: Pterophytes
Lycophytes & Pterophytes are what type of vascular plants ? seedless
This is the embryo and nutrients that is surrounded by a protective coat Seed
These plants have naked seeds that are not enclosed by ovaries and consist of four phyla: Gingkophyta, Coniferophyta, Gnetophyta, and Cycadophyta Gymnosperms
These are flowering plants Angiosperms
Characteristics of a _________ plant are: life cycles with dominant sporophytes, xylem/phloem, and well-developed roots and leaves vascular
Which plants require water for fertilization gymnosperms & angiosperms
There is only one living species in this phyla gingkophyta
This phyla includes coniferous plants Coniferophyta
This phyla has three genera: Gnetum, Ephedra, and Welwitschia Gnetophyta
This phyla includes cycads Cycadophyta
All _______ are classified in one phylum, Anthophyta angiosperms
Which plant structure is specialized for sexual reproduction angiosperm
dandelions, maples, pine seeds, tumbleweed, and cottonwood are all plants that aid in which type of pollination wind-seed dispersal
wheat, rice, maize, potatoes, cassava, and sweet potatoes come from what type of plants ? angiosperms
This encloses the flower sepals
These are brightly colored and are used to attract pollinators (birds, insects, animals) petals
These produce pollen on their terminal anthers Stamen
the male reproductive part stamen
These produces ovules Carpels
A group of carpels is called the: pistil
the female reproductive parts Carpels/pistil
_____ is the microgametophyte pollen
______ is the megagametophyte Embryo sac
These complete their lifecycle in 1 growing season, have a long blooming season, and must be replanted each year Annuals
Petunias, marigolds, cabbage, and okra are all examples of what type of plants ? annuals
These grow for three or more years and have a shorter blooming season perennials
Lilies, tulips, black-eyed susan, purple coneflower, and all trees and shrubs are examples of what type of plants perennials
These typically consists of a mature ovary but can also include other flower parts, protect seeds and aid in their dispersal, and can either be fleshy or dry Fruits
These trees loose all leaves for part of the year, the leaves usually turn color in the fall (real color), and are green from presence of chlorophyll deciduous
These trees maintain their leaves/needles throughout all seasons and leaves are replaced by new ones when they fall off, green color is always present evergreen (coniferous)
Roots rely on sugar produced by photosynthesis in the _____ system shoot
Shoots rely on water & minerals absorbed by the ____ system root
These are multicellular organs that anchor the plant, absorb minerals/water, and store organic nutrients roots
Water and mineral absorption occurs near the what ? root hairs
This system involves one main vertical root and gives rise to lateral roots, or branch roots taproot system
This system has thin lateral roots with no main root fibrous root system
seedless vascular plants and monocots have this system fibrous root system
These breathe air in habitats that have waterlogged soil; black mangrove swamps Pnematophores
These have an alternating system of nodes, internodes, an axillary bud, and an apical bud shoots (stems)
The points at which leaves are attached nodes
The stem segments between nodes internodes
A structure that has the potential to form a lateral shoot, or branch axillary bud
The terminal bud that is located near the shoot tip and causes elongation of a young shoot apical bud
The main photosynthetic organ of most vascular plants which consists of a flattened blade and a stalk called the petiole leaf
Joins the leaf to a node of the stem petiole (stalk)
These have parallel veins monocots
These have branching veins eudicots
This is the analysis of tree ring growth patterns, and can be used to study past climate change Dendrochronology
As a tree or woody shrub ages, the older layers of secondary xylem, the ________, no longer transport water and minerals heartwood
the older layer of secondary xylem, heartwood is replaced by the _______ for material transport through the xylem sapwood
The outmost type of ground tissue which functions for storage/support cortex
This is made up of xylem, phloem, and fiber cells (support) vascular bundle
The innermost type of ground tissue which functions for storage in roots and support in stems Pith
This is the site of growth vascular cambium
Dicot stems w/ herbaceous tissues that grow by stem elongation have what type of growth ? primary growth
Dicot stems w/ woody tissues that grow by increasing girth have what type of growth ? secondary growth
This stem has scattered vascular bundles monocot
This stem has a ring of vascular bundles eudicot
This is water & nutrient transporting tissue xylem
This is evaporation of water from leaves (through stomata) Transpiration
Transpiration pulls _____ up through _____, into _____, out ____ water, roots, xylem, leaf
This opens and closes to control gas exchange & water loss stomata
The guard cells of stomata control what ? transpiration
This transports sugars by translocation Phloem
Moving substances from high concentration to low concentration translocation
This is the plant embryonic tissue that never stops growing Meristem
This is the drain on water resources in arid regions; lowering aquifers irrigation
This is black/dark brown material typically consisting of a mixture of organic remains, clay, and rock particles soil
How can soil be described ? by texture, depth, and by chemical properties
What are the three types of soil in range of size (largest to smallest) ? sand, silt, clay
What are the four layers of soil ? organic, surface soil, subsoil, and parent rock
This layer of soil consists of living organisms & humus, also the decaying organic material Layer O: Organic
This layer of soil is topsoil consisting of mostly humus and some minerals, roots are present Layer A: Surface soil
This layer of soil consists of iron, clay, aluminum, and organic compounds Layer B: Subsoil
Layer C or soil is known as? parent rock
At which layer of soil is water & nutrients taken in? Layer A: Surface soil
Cations taken up from topsoil (surface soil) are taken up by the what ? root hairs
These adhere to negatively charged soil particles which prevents them from leaching out of the soil through percolating groundwater Cations
During __________, cations are displaced from soil particles by other cations cation exchange
__________ cations enter the soil solution and can be taken up by plant roots Displaced
This replaces mineral nutrients lost from the soil Fertilization
If leaves are completely green, they are: Healthy
If leaves are more purple than green, they are: phosphate deficient
If leaves are more reddish-yellow, they are: potassium-deficient
If leaves are more yellow- greenish with a tint of red, they are? nitrogen-deficient
Erosion is reduced by planting trees as _______, and practicing _______________ windbreaks, no-till agriculture
These leave crop residues standing for winter cover and crops are grown w/ minimal cultivation of the soil conservation tillage (no-till agriculture)
crops with higher organic matter do what ? use water more efficiently
conservation tillage= ? higher soil quality
Using plants to "detox" soils, removing radioactive Cesium-137, Uranium, and Stronium-90 (e.g. sunflowers) Phytoremediation
What three things remove radioactive contaminants and heavy metals from soils and groundwater? india mustard, cabbage, and broccoli
When dead plants provide energy needed by soil-dwelling microorganisms, this is called: Bacterio-remediation
This is the layer of soil bound to the plant's roots ? rhizosphere
This has high microbial activity because of sugars, amino acids, and organic acids secreted by roots rhizosphere
Land plants are informally grouped based on what ? Presence/absence of vascular tissue
Mosses, liverworts, and hornworts are what type of plants? Nonvascular plants
Conifers (evergreens) & flowering plants have what compared to ferns ? SEEDS
These three phyla of small herbaceous (nonwoody) plants are bryophytes Hepatophyta, Anthocerophyta, and Bryophyta
These are naked seed plants, conifers Gymnosperms
These type of plants have micropyle, nucellus, megasporocyte, and 1 ring of integument Gymnosperms
These type of plants have micropyle, nucellus, and a megasporocyte, but have 2 rings of integument, a funiculus, and seeds are protected by a coat Angiosperms
Club mosses, spike mosses, and quillworts are all what ? Lycophytes
Ferns, whisk ferns, and horsetails are all what ? Pterophytes
For ferns, mature gametophytes are haploid whereas mature sporophytes are what ? Diploid (2n)
Vascular plants with seeds have ______ gametophytes Reduced
Reduced gametophytes, ___________, ovules, pollen, and seeds are all derived traits of seed plants. What’s missing ? Heterospory
This gives rise to a male gametophyte Microspore
This gives rise to a female gametophyte Megaspore
These type of plants have reduced (usually microscopic) gametophytes that are dependent on surrounding sporophyte (dominant) tissue for nutrition Seed plants
These type of plants have reduced, independent (photosynthetic and free-living) gametophytes but sporophytes are still dominant Ferns and other SEEDLESS vascular plants
These type of plants have dominant gametophytes, but have reduced sporophytes that are dependent on gametophytes for nutrition Mosses and other NONvascular plants
Gymnosperm seeds are present in the cone whereas angiosperm seeds are present where ? Enclosed in the fruit
For what plants is water required for fertilization ? Mosses & ferns
Which type of plants don’t require water for fertilization ? Gynosperms & angiosperms
Mangroves, nutrient poor soils, shallow soils, and shallow root systems have what type of roots ? Horizontal (buttress)
These type of roots are stress avoiding, found in mangroves & tropics Adventitious (aerial)
This is the swollen tip of the stolon Tuber
Where are tree rings visible and what are they used for ? Where late & early wood meet, used to estimate tree’s age
What happens to the older secondary phloem ? Sloughs off & does not accumulate
These are the layers below the epidermis Collenchyma
While secondary phloem sloughs off, what happens to secondary xylem (inside) ? Becomes wood
Where is the vascular cambium located? Between the xylem & phloem
This part of the tree consists of living phloem and the periderm which breaks down into the cork cambium & cork Bark
When does water go out? Is it when the stoma is opening or closing ? Closing
These were used in areas that were contaminated with Zinc, Copper, and Lead Tomato plants
These were used to remove explosive material Duckweed & parrot feather
The inoculation of seeds with rhizobacteria can do what ? Increase crop yields
Plants provide sugar for fungus and fungus does what in return ? Increases the surface area for water uptake & mineral absorption
Some invasive species disrupt interactions between what? Native plants & their mycorrhizal fungi
This appears as a bright yellow open cone and is ready for pollination. For ‘beef’ tomatoes, 3-5 flowers should be allowed to develop on a healthy truss Mature flower
These are denoted by the appearance of bruises on the anther cone left by bumble bees clamping onto and pollinating the flower Fertilized flower
At this point, flower petals and anthers die and fall away as a pea sized green fruit appear at each termination of the flower truss. Typically, it takes 45-50 more days from this point before fruit is ready to harvest Fruit set
As a fruit enlarges, it remains light green in color and very firm (high turgor pressure). The fruit closest to the plant stem is the most mature, and thus largest in size Immature fruit
This type of plant has one cotyledon, pollen grains with one opening, and their floral organs are usually in multiples of three Monocot
This type of plant has two cotyledons, pollen grains with three openings, and their floral organs are usually in multiples of four or five (Eu)dicot
Created by: tparker31
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