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Chapter 4

Cells and Energy

ATP adenosine triphosphate, an organic molecule that acts as the main energy source for cell processes; composed of a nitrogenous base, a sugar, and three phosphate groups
ADP low-energy molecule that can be converted to ATP
chemosynthesis process by which ATP is synthesized by using chemicals as an energy source instead of light
photosynthesis process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria use sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water to produce carbohydrates and oxygen
chlorophyll a green pigment that is present in most plant and algae cells and come bacteria that gives plants their characteristic green color, and that absorbs light to provide energy for photosynthesis
thylakoid a membrane system found within chloroplasts that contains the components for photosynthesis
light-dependent reaction part of photosynthesis that absorbs energy from sunlight and transfers energy to the light-independent reactions
light-independent reaction part of photosynthesis that uses energy absorbed during the light-dependent reactions to synthesize carbohydrates
photosystem series of light-absorbing pigments and proteins that capture and transfer energy in the thylakoid membrane
electron transport chain a series of molecules, found in the inner membranes of mitochondria and chloroplasts, through which electrons pass in a process that causes protons to build up on one side of the membrane
ATP synthase enzyme that catalyzes the reaction that adds a high-energy phosphate group to ADP to form ATP
Calvin cycle a biochemical pathway of photosynthesis in which carbon dioxide is converted into glucose using ATP
cellular respiration the process by which cells produce energy from carbohydrates; atmospheric oxygen combines with glucose to form water and carbon dioxide
aerobic process that requires oxygen to occur
glycolysis the anaerobic breakdown of glucose into pyruvic acid, which makes a small amount of energy available to cells in the form of ATP
anaerobic describes a process that does not require oxygen
Krebs cycle a series of biochemical reactions that converts pyruvic acid into carbon dioxide and water; it is the major pathway of oxidation in animal, bacterial,and plant cells, and it releases energy
fermentation breakdown of carbohydrates by enzymes, bacteria, yeasts, or mold in the absence of oxygen
lactic acid product of fermentation in many types of cells, including human muscle cells
Created by: kaseywallace
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