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Chapter 4

Cells and Energy

ATP adenosine triphosphate; high-ebergy molecule that contains, within its bonds, energy that cells can use
ADP adenosine diphosphate; low-energy molecule that can be converted to ATP
chemosynthesis process by which ATP is synthesized by using chemicals as an energy source instead of light
photosynthesis process by which light energy is converted to chemical energy; produces sugar and oxygen from carbon dioxide and water
chlorophyll light-absorbing pigment molecule in photosynthetic organisms
thylakoid membrane-bound structure within chloroplasts that contains chlorophyll and other light-absorbing pigments used in the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis
light-dependent reactions part of photosynthesis that absorbs energy from sunlight and transfers energy to the light-independent reactions
light-independent reaction part of photosynthesis that uses energy absorbed during the light-dependent reactions to synthesize carbohydrates
photsystem series of light-absorbing pigment and proteins that capture and transfer energy in the thylakoid membrane
electron transport chain series of proteins in the thylakoid and mitochondrial membranes that aid in converting ADP to ATP by transerring electrons
ATP synthase enzyme that catalyzes the reaction that adds high-energy phosphate group to ADP to form ATP
Calvin cycle process by which a photosynthetic organism uses energy to synthesize simple sugars from CO2
cellular respiration process of producing ATP by breaking down carbon-based molecules when oxygen is present
aerobic process that requires oxygen to occur
glycolysis anaerobic process in which glucose is broken down into two molecules of pyruvate and two net ATP are produced
anaerobic process that does not require oxygen to occur
Krebs cycle process during cellular respiration that breaks down a cabron molecule to produce molecules that are used in the electron transport chain
fermentation anaerobic process by which ATP is produced by glycolysis
lactic acid product of fermentation in many types of cells, including human muscle cells
Created by: harolds21