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species organisms that can mate with each other and produce fertile offspring (Ecology/1)
population a group of organisms of one species living in one area at one time (Ecology/1)
community multiple populations living in one area (Ecology/1)
ecosystem a community and the abiotic factors in the area (Ecology/1)
niche the role a species plays in an ecosystem, including where it lives and what it eats (Ecology/1)
food web a model, using arrows, of the consumer interactions in a community (Ecology/1)
producer impact change in the producer level can affect the # and size of other trophic levels (Ecology/1)
biotic living (or once living) factors in an ecosystem (Ecology/1)
abiotic non-living (never alive) factors (Ecology/1)
dynamic homeostasis constant movement (change) of a factor toward a stable target point (Ecology/1)
symbiosis interactions between organisms of two species, includes mutualism, and parasitism (Ecology/1)
energy pyramid a model of 10% energy flow through consecutive trophic levels (Ecology/1)
exponential population grown reproduction without restraints (Ecology/1)
logistical population growth population exceeds resource availability (carrying capacity) (Ecology/1)
hypothesis a proposed explanation for a problem that can be tested (ideally written in if/then form) [Science]
theory an explanation for a broad problem, supported by extensive experimentation [Science]
controlled experiment compares an experimental group (alter one variable) with a control group (all other variable are held constant) [Science]
Biology the study of life [Science]
evolution the change in allele frequency of a population over time [Evolution/2]
natural selection the process by which organisms that are better adapted to their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce (mechanism for evolution) [Evolution/2]
adaptation a genetic variation (expressed as a trait) that is favored by selection in a particular environment [Evolution/2]
species diversity the number of different species in a particular area [Evolution/2]
limited resources less available food water, or space than is required by a population (above carrying capacity) [Evolution/2]
competition struggle for existence between organisms for mates or limited resources (winners are more fit, better adapted) [Evolution/2]
genetic variation the difference in alleles or genes between organisms within the gene pool of a species [Evolution/2]
mutation this change in DNA (nucleotide sequence) is the original source of variation [Evolution/2]
1)genotype and 2)phenotype 1) the 2 alleles (ex: Ww) for a trait 2) the expression of a trait (ex: Widow's peak)[Evolution/2]
speciation the formation of a new species following reproductive isolation (results in species diversity) [Evolution/2]
evidence of evolution includes, but is not limited to fossil record, morphological homologies, and DNA/protein similarities [Evolution/2]
common ancestor an ancestral species shared by two or more species as evidenced by commonalities (can be shown on a phylogenetic tree or cladogram) [Evolution/2]
carbon backbone element in macromolecules important to life [Biochemistry/3]
biogeochemical cycles the cycle of matter (such as carbon, nitrogen, and water) between biotic and abiotic factors [Biochemistry/3]
carbohydrates (polymer/monomer) starch and cellulose are made out of sugar [Biochemistry/3]
carbohydrates (elements) carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O) [Biochemistry/3]
carbohydrates (function) energy storage and structure [Biochemistry/3]
proteins (polymer/monomer) proteins are made out of amino acids [Biochemistry/3]
proteins (elements) carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), and nitrogen (N) [Biochemistry/3]
proteins (function) acting as enzymes, antibodies, and building blocks of the body [Biochemistry/3]
nucleic acids (polymer/monomer) DNA and RNA are made out of nucleotides [Biochemistry/3]
nucleic acids (elements) carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), nitrogen (N), and phosphorous (P) [Biochemistry/3]
nucleic acids (function) molecule of heredity and related functions [Biochemistry/3]
lipid (elements) a fat containing carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O) [Biochemistry/3]
1) prokaryotes and 2) eukaryotes 1) (mostly bacteria) are a group of unicellular organisms that lack membrane -bound organelles (no nucleus, etc) 2) (animals, plans, fungi, etc.) organisms with complex cells and membrane-bound organelles (nucleus, mitochondria, etc.) [Cells/4]
cell size cells, the basic unit of life, are small in order to have a high surface area to volume ratio (SA/V) [Cells/4]
cell specialization cells in multicellular organisms develop to have separate tasks (muscle cells, red blood cells, etc.) [Cells/4]
cell membrane selectively permeable separation of the internal and external environment of the cell [Cells/4]
1) mitochondria and 2) chloroplast 1) organelle that breaks down sugar (glucose) to release ATP energy (cellular respiration 2) organelle that absorbs light energy to build sugar (photosynthesis) (both only in eukaryotes) [Cells/4]
1) rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and 2) golgi complex 1) a ribosome covered site of protein production and transport 2) modifies/packages proteins and further transport (both only in eukaryotes) [Cells/4]
nucleus membrane bound organelle with contains DNA, the blueprint for proteins (only in eukaryotes) [Cells/4]
ribosomes organelle that is the site of protein production (found in all living organisms) [Cells/4]
lysosomes membrane bound organelle that digest and dispose of cell waste (only in eukaryotes) [Cells/4]
vacuole membrane bound organelle with functions that include release of waste products and storage (only in eukaryotes) [Cells/4]
cell wall found surrounding many cells (except animal) provide protection and structure [Cells/4]
osmosis diffusion (energy free movement from high concentration to low concentration) of water across a membrane [Cells/4]
enzyme (function) proteins that increase the rate of a reaction by lowering the energy activation [Energy/5]
enzyme (structure) in order to react, the substrate (reactant) must fit into the active site of the enzyme (lock and key model) [Energy/5]
ATP adenosine tri-phosphate is the universal energy molecule which releases energy when a phosphate is lost converting the molecule to ADP [Energy/5]
1) autotrophs and 2) heterotrophs 1) organisms that produce their own food (usually plants using sun's energy) 2) organisms that consume their food [Energy/5]
photosynthesis (location) chloroplast (usually in plant cells) [Energy/5]
photosynthesis (purpose) the process that converts sun's energy into sugar (glucose) [Energy/5]
photosynthesis (equation) light + CO2 + H2O ---> O2 + C6H12O6 (light + carbon dioxide + water yields oxygen + glucose) [Energy/5]
photosynthesis (steps) 1) light dependent reactions 2) Calvin cycle [Energy/5]
cellular respiration (location) mitochondria and cytosol [Energy/5]
cellular respiration (purpose) the process that releases ATP energy from sugar (glucose) [Energy/5]
cellular respiration (equation) O2 + C6H12O6 ---> ATP + CO2 + H2O (oxygen + glucose yields ATP energy + carbon dioxide + water) [Energy/5]
cellular respiration (steps) 1) glycolysis 2) Krebs cycle (or citric acid cycle) 3) electron transport chain (ETC)/chemiosmosis [Energy/5]
negative feedback mechanism maintains dynamic homeostasis (ex: body temperature) by returning the changing condition back to its target set point [Animal/Plant/6]
nervous system the system that detects external and internal signals, processes information, and responds (message system) [Animal/Plant/6]
nerve cell basic cell of the nervous system is made up of a cell body, axon and dendrites (also called a neuron) [Animal/Plant/6]
1)central (CNS) and 2)peripheral (PNS) nervous system 1) brain and spinal cord 2)interacting nerve cells [Animal/Plant/6]
immune system the system in plants and animals that include a variety of chemical defenses against disease [Animal/Plant/6]
B cells type of lymphocytic white blood cell (WBC) that produce antibodies to help fight extracellular pathogens such as bacteria (part of the specific, humoral response) [Animal/Plant/6]
antibodies Y-shaped proteins produced by B cells that bind to antigens of pathogens, targeting them for destruction [Animal/Plant/6]
cytotoxic (killer) T-cells typeof lymphocytic WBC that fights cancer cells and intracellular pathogens such as viruses (part of the specific, cell mediated response) [Animal/Plant/6]
digestive system (mammal) the system of organs that take in food, extract nutrients and release sold waste (includes mouth, stomach, and intestines) [Animal/Plant/6]
excretory system (mammal) the system that filters and releases liquid nitrogenous waste (includes kidney and bladder) [Animal/Plant/6]
respiratory system (mammal) the system that takes in oxygen and releases carbon dioxide (works with the circulatory system) (includes lungs) [Animal/Plant/6]
circulatory system (mammal) the system that distributes oxygen and collects carbon dioxide from the body (works with the respiratory system) (includes heart, veins, and arteries) [Animal/Plant/6]
chromosome made up of DNA wrapped around proteins (human body cells have 46 chromosomes [diploid/2n] located in the nucleus) [Heredity/7]
allele one of two or more forms of a gene (ex: W or w for widow's peak trait) [Heredity/7]
fertilization the joining of a haploid egg cell and a haploid (1n) sperm cell to form a diploid (2n) zygote [Heredity/7]
mitosis followed by cytokinesis, this division of the nucleus produces two identical, diploid (2n) body cells [Heredity/7]
meiosis followed by cytokinesis, this double division of the nucleus produces four unique haploid (1n) egg or sperm cells (only 1 egg cell is viable) [Heredity/7]
DNA replication the process of producing two identical copies of one original DNA molecule [Heredity/7]
1) dominant and 2) recessive alleles 1) expressed if at least one allele is present 2) only expressed when a dominant allele is not present [Heredity/7]
sex chromosome in humans, these chromosomes are X and Y. XX produces females and XY produces males [Heredity/7]
sex-linked traits typically found on X chromosomes (ex: colorblindness), to express the trait, men need one copy of the gene (ex: XcY) and females need two copies (ex: XcXc) [Heredity/7]
1)homozygous and 2)heterozygous 1) a genotype with two identical alleles (ex: WW or ww) 2) a genotype with two different alleles (ex: Ww) [Heredity/7]
gene a section of DNA in a chromosome that codes for a protein (or polypeptide) [Heredity/7]
gamete egg or sperm cells (haploid/1n) [Heredity/7]
bacterial DNA one circular chromosome not surrounded by a nucleus, they may also have smaller rings of DNA called plasmids [Molecular Genetics/8]
DNA (structure) double sided helix made of nucleotides containing a sugar, phosphate group and a base. Watson, Crick, Wilkins, and Franklin contributed [Molecular Genetics/8]
DNA (as a molecular heredity) a variety of experiments determined that DNA, not protein, is the molecule of heredity. Griffith, Avery and Hershey-Chase contributed. [Molecular Genetics/8]
base pairing rule in DNA, adenine (A) pairs with thymine (T) and guanine (G) pairs with cytosine (C). In RNA uracil (U) is substituted for thymine. [Molecular Genetics/8]
transcription (location) the first step of protein synthesis takes place in the nucleus [Molecular Genetics/8]
transcription (function) the first step protein synthesis converts DNA code to mRNA code (m=messenger) [Molecular Genetics/8]
translation (location) the final step of protein synthesis takes place at the ribosomes [Molecular Genetics/8]
translation (function) the final step of protein synthesis includes mRNA --> tRNA --> polypeptide chain to eventually form a protein (t=transfer) [Molecular Genetics/8]
point mutation addition, deletion, or substitution of one base of DNA can result inno change, a different protein, or an incomplete protein [Molecular Genetics/8]
genetic engineering general term for manipulation of DNA includes cloning, gel electrophoresis and transformation [Molecular Genetics/8]
virus a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of a host and is not alive [Molecular Genetics/8]
1)DNA vs 2)RNA 1) double sided, has the sugar deoxyribose and has the base thymine 2) single sided, has the sugar ribose and the base uracil [Molecular Genetics/8]
Created by: Fox Science